~ Welcome to English Sentence Structure ~ This short 40 page booklet briefly describes the hierarchical assembly of English, starting with the alphabet and ending with sentences. Special focus is given to understanding 'modules,' which are groups of words that work together. Diagrams are presented to visually illustrate how sentences are constructed from words and modules. After reading this book you should understand the basics of English sentence construction and how thinking in modules makes English easier.
This volume brings together a collection of 18 papers dealing with the problem of word order variation in discourse. Word order variation has often been treated as an essentially unpredictable phenomenon, a matter of selecting randomly one of the set of possible orders generated by the grammar. However, as the papers in this collection show, word order variation is not random, but rather governed by principles which can be subjected to scientific investigation and are common to all languages.The papers in this volume discuss word order variation in a diverse collection of languages and from a number of perspectives, including experimental and quantitative text based studies. A number of papers address the problem of deciding which order is 'basic' among the alternatives. The volume will be of interest to typologists, to other linguists interested in problems of word order variation, and to those interested in discourse syntax.
This work provides a comprehensive discourse-functional account of three classes of noncanonical constituent placement in English preposing, postposing, and argument reversal and shows how their interaction is accounted for in a principled and predictive way. In doing so, it details the variety of ways in which information can be 'given' or 'new' and shows how an understanding of this variety allows us to account for the distribution of these constructions in discourse. Moreover, the authors show that there exist broad and empirically verifiable functional correspondences within classes of syntactically similar constructions. Relying heavily on corpus data, the authors identify three interacting dimensions along which individual constructions may vary with respect to the pragmatic constraints to which they are sensitive: old vs. new information, relative vs. absolute familiarity, and discourse- vs. hearer-familiarity. They show that preposed position is reserved for information that is linked to the prior discourse by means of a contextually licensed partially-ordered set relationship; postposed position is reserved for information that is 'new' in one of a small number of distinct senses; and argument-reversing constructions require that the information represented by the preverbal constituent be at least as familiar within the discourse as that represented by the postverbal constituent. Within each of the three classes of constructions, individual constructions vary with respect to whether they are sensitive to familiarity within the discourse or (assumed) familiarity within the hearer's knowledge store. Thus, although the individual constructions in question are subject to distinct constraints, this work provides empirical evidence for the existence of strong correlations between sentence position and information status. The final chapter presents crosslinguistic data showing that these correlations are not limited to English.
Practice Makes Perfect helps you put your English vocabulary and grammar skills together! You may have all the vocabulary down pat and every grammar point nailed--but without the skill of knowing how to put these elements together, communicating in your second language would be nearly impossible. Practice Makes Perfect: English Sentence Builders picks up from where other grammar books leave off, showing you the variety of structures and how to combine them to make solid sentences. And like every Practice Makes Perfect title, these books feature crystal-clear explanations, numerous realistic examples, and dozens of opportunities to practice, practice, practice!
This revised edition of Bilingual Grammar of English-Spanish Syntax is a valuable comparative analysis of the inter-lingual differences between English and Spanish. All thirty-six sections of the book have been revised in order to cover a broad scope of dialects with as much clarity as possible. The exercises, many of which are framed bilingually, facilitate the development of the student's skills, through translation from one language into the other, or through restating grammatical constructions in one language. Bilingual Grammar of English-Spanish Syntax is an important tool for anyone teaching or working with Spanish and English.
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3 (A), University of Cologne, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Introduction: In comparison to English, the German language does not seem to have a specific word order. The distinction between grammatical functions like subjects or objects is mainly due to case-inflection and prepositions. For that reason, word order in German sentences can vary to some extent without a fundamental change in meaning. In the following analysis of German syntax, we are going to consider a possibility of finding the basic German word order. On the basis of the Government and Binding Theory, a widely accepted approach to syntactic analysis, we are going to argue that the structure of a subordinate clause underlies every German sentence. In doing so, we will find that the position of the verb will play a pivotal role. With the help of a clear characterisation, it becomes easier to understand German syntax and to contrast it with other languages such as English. Although the two languages are closely related in historical terms, German sentence structure differs from English SVO (subject-verb-object) word order, which we will examine in chapter III. But before we can embark on the study of English and German syntax, we need to introduce a considerable amount of terminology and syntactic principles, which will form the necessary set of rules in our subsequent analysis. Kurzer Uberblick auf Deutsch: Diese Arbeit sucht auf der Grundlage der Government and Binding Theory nach der Basisstruktur eines jeden deutschen Satzes. Wahrend in der englischen Sprache die Subjekt-Verb-Objekt-Struktur vorliegt, und man mit Blick auf deutsche Hauptsatze Gleiches im Deutschen vermuten konnte, so bringt diese Arbeit eine Vielzahl von Argumenten, die eine Subjekt-Objekt-Verb-Struktur in der deutschen Sprache nahe legen. Unglaubig? Eine kurze Ubersetzung von to sing a s
Based on a problem-solving approach to language, this new edition has been thoroughly revised to offer numerous exercises that focus on: introducing the evidence for sentence structure; teaching the reader how to identify word classes; & using simple tree structures to analyse sentences.
Classroom Activities to Teach Diction, Detail, Imagery, Syntax, and Tone
Author: Nancy Dean
Publisher: Maupin House Publishing, Inc.
"Prepare your high school students for AP, IB, and other standardized tests that demand an understanding of the subtle elements that comprise an author's unique voice. Each of the 100 sharply focused, historically and culturally diverse passages from world literature targets a specific component of voice, presenting the elements in short, manageable exercises that function well as class openers. Includes teacher notes and discussion suggestions."
This is a coursebook for GCSE covering the basic structures of the language. It provides listening, reading and writing tasks and practice in role-play. Dialogues and exercises are placed in a realistic context and form the basis of the grammar and functional language sections.
Word order is one of the major properties on which languages are compared and its study is fundamental to linguistics. This comprehensive survey provides an up-to-date, critical overview of this widely debated topic, exploring and evaluating word order research carried out in four major theoretical frameworks - linguistic typology, generative grammar, optimality theory and processing-based theories. It is the first book to bring these theoretical approaches together in one place and is therefore a one-stop resource covering the current developments in word order research. It explains word order patterns in different languages and at different structural levels and critically evaluates (and where possible, compares) the theoretical assumptions and word order principles used in the different approaches. Also highlighted are issues and problems that require further investigation or remain unresolved. This book will be invaluable to those investigating word order, and researchers and students in syntax, linguistic theory and typology.
This popular course book gives students of English and linguistics a systematic account of the rules of English syntax, and acquaints them with the general methodology of syntactic description. It teaches them how to formulate syntactic arguments, and how to apply the tests in the analysis of sentences.
A description of the English language as a dynamic system in the evolutionary process of radical typological restructuring, which has deeply affected its constituent subsystems - grammatical, lexical and phonic.
First of all the author wants to make it crystal clear that the present work is of a great benefit both for the English and Arab learners of the target language either Arabic or English. This edition of the book pinpoints previous researchers' findings regarding English and Arabic phonological, morphological and syntactic similarities and differences and how all these differences result in mistakes and errors by the Arab learners of English in their learning process. These mistakes or errors are unconsciously or involuntarily made by Arab learners of English due to the differences between the system and sub-systems of the two languages. The present attempt is the result of my realization as an English language teacher as to how a teacher can minimize students difficulties in learning of English and maximize their knowledge, skills and competency of English as a foreign or second language. This is the first edition. The work is pedagogically oriented and primarily intended to make teaching-learning of English as a foreign/second language a bit easy especially for the first-year university students of English language in the Arab world: (Gulf area such as KSA, UAE, Kuwait, and the Middle East Area, such as Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and so on). The focus is on phonetic and morpho-syntactic variations in Arabic and English languages. This area of research becomes more interesting through the assumptions – (i) information about the differences and similarities between Arabic and English language is to be supplied at an early stage since this facilitates the students learning task, (ii) the differences are to be presented in pedagogically suitable format, (iii) it is useful to separate and present phonetics, morphological and syntactic categories as they function in suitable contexts and not merely abstract notions, (iv) before students may tackle contrastive analysis, they should have basic knowledge of Arabic and English languages similarities and differences and (v) pre-modification and post-modification of lexical and syntactic structures are to be explained appropriately.
Wilhelm Griehaber, Jochen Rehbein, S Çiğdem Sağin Şimşek, S Cigdem
This book examines current advances in the role of interactional feedback in second language (L2) teaching and learning. Drawing on recent theory and research in both classroom and laboratory contexts, the book explores a wide range of issues regarding interactional feedback and their relevance for both theory and practice, including how interactional feedback is used, processed, and contributes to L2 acquisition. This book will provide a useful resource for applied linguistics students and academics as well as language teachers and teacher educators who would like to gain insight into the role of interactional feedback and how it can be used as a means of integrating form and meaning in classroom contexts.
The major focus of this book involves the testing of theories of word order change with data on change in Old English. The data are drawn from such sources as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and from the work of other scholars in Old English and historical linguistics. The book provides support for the ideas of earlier linguists such as Sapir, and will represent a major study for those working in Old English and historical linguistics. Contents: Introduction; Natural Word Order Types and Natural Word Order Change; Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Germanic Word Order Patterns; Order of Major Elements in Main Clauses in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; Word Order Patterns in Conjunct, Relative and Subordinate Clauses; Further Studies in Old English Word Order; Conclusions.^R
Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction to the two major contrasting theoretical approaches: generativist and constructivist. For each debate, the predictions of the competing accounts are closely and even-handedly evaluated against the empirical data. The result is an evidence-based review of the central issues in language acquisition research that will constitute a valuable resource for students, teachers, course-builders and researchers alike.