Three Models of Change in International Organizations
Author: Ernst B. Haas
Publisher: University of California Press
Category: Social Science
Do governments seeking to collaborate in such international organizations as the United Nations and the World Bank ever learn to improve the performance of those organizations? Can international organizations be improved by a deliberate institutional design that reflects lessons learned in peacekeeping, the protection of human rights, and environmentally sound economic development? In this incisive work, Ernst Haas examines these and other issues to delineate the conditions under which organizations change their methods for defining problems. Haas contends that international organizations change most effectively when they are able to redefine the causes underlying the problems to be addressed. He shows that such self-reflection is possible when the expert-generated knowledge about the problems can be made to mesh with the interests of hegemonic coalitions of member governments. But usually efforts to change organizations begin as adaptive practices that owe little to a systematic questioning of past behavior. Often organizations adapt and survive without fully satisfying most of their members, as has been the case with the United Nations since 1970. When Knowledge Is Power is a wide-ranging work that will elicit interest from political scientists, organization theorists, bureaucrats, and students of management and international administration. This title is part of UC Press's Voices Revived program, which commemorates University of California Press’s mission to seek out and cultivate the brightest minds and give them voice, reach, and impact. Drawing on a backlist dating to 1893, Voices Revived makes high-quality, peer-reviewed scholarship accessible once again using print-on-demand technology. This title was originally published in 1990.
How International Bureaucracies Produce and Mobilize Knowledge
Author: Annabelle Littoz-Monnet
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Political Science
This edited volume advances existing research on the production and use of expert knowledge by international bureaucracies. Given the complexity, technicality and apparent apolitical character of the issues dealt with in global governance arenas, ‘evidence-based’ policy-making has imposed itself as the best way to evaluate the risks and consequences of political action in global arenas. In the absence of alternative, democratic modes of legitimation, international organizations have adopted this approach to policy-making. By treating international bureaucracies as strategic actors, this volume address novel questions: why and how do international bureaucrats deploy knowledge in policy-making? Where does the knowledge they use come from, and how can we retrace pathways between the origins of certain ideas and their adoption by international administrations? What kind of evidence do international bureaucrats resort to, and with what implications? Which types of knowledge are seen as authoritative, and why? This volume makes a crucial contribution to our understanding of the way global policy agendas are shaped and propagated. It will be of great interest to scholars, policy-makers and practitioners in the fields of public policy, international relations, global governance and international organizations.
The Diffusion of Information in Early America, 1700-1865
Author: Richard D. Brown
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Brown here explores America's first communications revolution--the revolution that made printed goods and public oratory widely available and, by means of the steamboat, railroad and telegraph, sharply accelerated the pace at which information travelled. He describes the day-to-day experiences of dozens of men and women, and in the process illuminates the social dimensions of this profound, far-reaching transformation. Brown begins in Massachusetts and Virginia in the early 18th century, when public information was the precious possession of the wealthy, learned, and powerful, who used it to reinforce political order and cultural unity. Employing diaries and letters to trace how information moved through society during seven generations, he explains that by the Civil War era, cultural unity had become a thing of the past. Assisted by advanced technology and an expanding economy, Americans had created a pluralistic information marketplace in which all forms of public communication--print, oratory, and public meetings--were competing for the attention of free men and women. Knowledge is Power provides fresh insights into the foundations of American pluralism and deepens our perspective on the character of public communications in the United States.
When Life Gives You Children provides a humorous, yet realistic, view of parenting - and especially single parenting. Written from the perspective of a long-haired musician, single dad of four boys, Izzy tells it like it is in the hopes of helping those who are considering having children understand the realities of parenting. While most parenting advice books are written from a clinical “what to do” after it happens viewpoint, When Life Gives You Children, is a “Look Before You Leap” book focusing on the constant day-to-day mental and physical challenges of parenting.
How People-Centric Organizations Succeed in a Social World
Author: Jamie Notter
Publisher: Que Publishing
Category: Business & Economics
"Knowing the tools of social media is a must for successful marketing these days, but the real promise of social media is the way it can teach us a whole new way of doing business. Humanize takes the principles underlying social media's growth and applies them to the way we lead and manage our organizations"--Back cover.
Islam's Predicament with Modernity presents an in-depth cultural and political analysis of the issue of political Islam as a potential source of tensions and conflict, and how this might be peacefully resolved. Looking at the issue of modernity from an Islamic point of view, the author examines the role of culture and religion in Muslim society under conditions of globalisation, and analyses issues such as law, knowledge and human rights. He engages a number of significant studies on political Islam and draws on detailed case studies, rejecting the approaches of both Orientalists and apologists and calling instead for a genuine Islamic pluralism that accepts the equality of others. Situating modernity as a Western product at the crux of his argument, he argues that a separation of religion and politics is required, which presents a challenge to the Islamic worldview. This critical analysis of value conflicts, tensions and change in the Islamic world will be of interest to scholars and advanced students of international relations, social theory, political science, religion, Islamic studies and Middle Eastern studies.
How Convergence of Cloud, Social, Mobile, Video, and Big Data Enables Competitive Advantage
Author: Rodney Heisterberg
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Business & Economics
"Focuses on the technology innovations that may help in building virtual businesses and making existing businesses smarter and efficient in their operations. Intended to help key decision makers understand more about introducing new technologies into businesses"--
The World's Leading CEO's Share Their Five Strategies For Success
Author: Charles M. Farkas
Publisher: Henry Holt and Company
Category: Business & Economics
Business fads come and go, but the importance of corporate leadership as a determining factor for success has never been doubted. But exactly what is corporate leadership? Is it a CEO with a strong personality, one with strong management skills, one who has a combination of these traits--or something else entirely? What factors, in other words, make a powerfully effective corporate leader? In this era of increasingly fierce global competition few questions spark as much controversy and debate. Thus, in the summer of 1994, the authors of this book began traveling across North America, Europe, and Asia to interview the heads of more than 160 majormultinational corporations, in industries as diverse as entertainment, banking, diamond mining, and semiconductors. Their goal was the explore the role of the CEO--to discover how the men and women at the pinnacle of some of the world's most prominent companies fulfill their role as leaders. They came away not with abstract theories about management but with real stories about how CEOs actually spend their days, whom they see, where they go, which decisions they make, which they don't, and why. In the process, the authors uncovered new and provocative evidence that there exist five distinct styles of leadership. In Maximum Leadership they illustrate those styles--or "approaches," as they call them--with vivid examples and the candid voices of CEOs at companies such as Coca-Cola, Gillette, Nintendo, Hewlett-Packard, Goldman Sachs, and Nestle. These executives and dozens of others tell fascinating, revealing, often funny and sometimes poignant stories about the challenges they face and how they have met them. Some are "human assets" leaders, running their companies by scrupulously managing hundreds of individuals and the relationships between them. Others are "box" leaders, who define their role as building the fortress of rules, regulations, and corporate culture that will guarantee their companies success. There are also strategic leaders, expertise champions, and change agents, each with their own unique qualities, priorities, and styles of managing, both day-to-day and over the long term. With these five approaches and the authors' cogent analyses of them, Maximum Leadership introduces a new vocabulary for understanding how companies are run to achieve their greatest potential and offers important insights for those inside the corporate office--and everyone whose career is impacted by what happens there.
Systematically exploring the consequences of the global financial crisis, this text focuses primarily on the impact on policy and politics. It asks how governments responded to the challenges that the crisis has posed, and the policy and political impact of the combination of both the crisis itself and these responses.
The basic objective of this report is to place the debate about the future of the Northern Sea Route into the larger picture of Arctic politics and the emerging agenda of the Arctic as a developing region in international society. National security and international environmental cooperation, are the objects of study employed, both separately and in various conceptual combinations, to realize this purpose. To help me in this, I was privileged to draw on the profound expertise of my highly esteemed co-authors, Professor Franklyn Griffiths at the University of Toronto and Senior Researchers at IMEMO in Moscow: Raphael Vartanov, Alexei Roginko and Alexander Kolossov. To their cooperative spirit, friendship and solid contributions to this report, ( am deeply indebted. The report is the result of multiple contributions, both in terms of substance and funding, extending far beyond the inputs of the team of authors. The professional input and thorough work 'behind the scene' done by Liv Astrid Sverdrup, Researcher at FNI at an early stage of the project, has been invaluable. Senior Consultant Kjell Moe at the Norwegian Polar Institute also provided valuable comments and improvements to the biological parts of the Introductory chapter, whilst Senior Consultant Ann Skarstad at FNI, worked wonders with the language for those of us not having English as our mother tongue. Claes Lykke Ragner, Deputy head of the (NSROP secretariat, and Dr.
Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965
Author: Yuen Foong Khong
Publisher: Princeton University Press
From World War I to Operation Desert Storm, American policymakers have repeatedly invoked the "lessons of history" as they contemplated taking their nation to war. Do these historical analogies actually shape policy, or are they primarily tools of political justification? Yuen Foong Khong argues that leaders use analogies not merely to justify policies but also to perform specific cognitive and information-processing tasks essential to political decision-making. Khong identifies what these tasks are and shows how they can be used to explain the U.S. decision to intervene in Vietnam. Relying on interviews with senior officials and on recently declassified documents, the author demonstrates with a precision not attained by previous studies that the three most important analogies of the Vietnam era--Korea, Munich, and Dien Bien Phu--can account for America's Vietnam choices. A special contribution is the author's use of cognitive social psychology to support his argument about how humans analogize and to explain why policymakers often use analogies poorly.
Vaccination programmes now represent a major part of the effort devoted to improving the health of children in developing countries. These donor-funded programmes tend to be global in scope and focus on worldwide goals and targets such as 'polio eradication', and the Millennium Development Goals. Health policy makers at the national level are expected to implement these programmes in a standard manner and report progress according to a few standard indicators. Pressures and incentives to achieve the targets set are then transmitted down to the community level health worker who actually meets the parents and children to implement the programmes. Drawing on first hand, original research in India and Malawi carried out by the contributors, as well as existing literature, Protecting the World's Children: Immunisation policies and practices suggests that there is little or no scope allowed for the effects of variance in the way health systems work, the difficulties and tensions faced by health workers, or differences in the way people think about childhood illnesses that reflect cultural differences. The book argues that the need to show progress can create distortions and lead to the production of misleading data and an unwillingness to report problems. It proposes that vaccines could more effectively serve children's health needs if immunisation programmes are better understood and acknowledged, and if local knowledge and realities were enabled to inform national and international health policy. Written by an international, interdisciplinary team of experts in immunisation policy, Protecting the World's Children is an integrative study of immunisation policy and practice at a global, national and community level, and is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners in international and public health, as well as professionals in international and development studies.
Domestic Foreign Policy Debates in China, India, Iran, Japan, and Russia
Author: Henry R. Nau
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
Worldviews of Aspiring Powers provides a serious study of the domestic foreign policy debates in five world powers who have gained more influence as the US's has waned: China, Japan, India, Russia and Iran. Featuring a leading regional scholar for each essay, each essay identifies the most important domestic schools of thought--nationalists, realists, globalists, idealists/exceptionalists--and connects them to the historical and institutional sources that fuel each nation's foreign policy experience. While scholars have applied this approach to US foreign policy, this book is the first to track the competing schools of foreign policy thought within five of the world's most important rising powers. Concise and systematic, Worldviews of Aspiring Powers will serve as both an essential resource for foreign policy scholars trying to understand international power transitions and as a text for courses that focus on the same.
Infectious disease surveillance has evolved at an extraordinarypace during the past several decades, and continues to do so. It isincreasingly used to inform public health practice in addition toits use as a tool for early detection of epidemics. It is thereforecrucial that students of public health and epidemiology have asound understanding of the concepts and principles that underpinmodern surveillance of infectious disease. Written by leaders in the field, who have vast hands-onexperience in conducting surveillance and teaching applied publichealth, Concepts and Methods in Infectious DiseaseSurveillance is comprised of four sections. The first sectionprovides an overview, a description of systems used by publichealth jurisdictions in the United States and legal considerationsfor surveillance. The second section presents chapters on majorprogram-area or disease-specific surveillance systems, includingthose that monitor bacterial infections, foodborne diseases,healthcare-associated infections, and HIV/AIDS. The followingsection is devoted to methods for conducting surveillance and alsoapproaches for data analysis. A concluding section summarizescommunication of surveillance findings, including the use oftraditional and social media, in addition to showcasing lessonslearned from the New York City Department of Health’sexperience in surveillance and epidemiology training. This comprehensive new book covers major topics at an introductoryto intermediate level, and will be an excellent resource forinstructors. Suitable for use in graduate level courses in publichealth, human and veterinary medicine, and in undergraduateprograms in public-health-oriented disciplines, Concepts andMethods in Infectious Disease Surveillance is also a usefulprimer for frontline public health practitioners, hospitalepidemiologists, infection control practitioners, laboratorians inpublic health settings, infectious disease researchers, and medicaland public health informaticians interested in a concise overviewof infectious disease surveillance.
Multilateral Cooperation in the Arab-Israeli Peace Process, 1991-1996
Author: Dalia Dassa Kaye
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
Arabs and Israelis have battled one another in political and military arenas, seemingly continuously, for some fifty years. The 1991 Madrid Peace Conference sought to change this pattern, launching bilateral and multilateral tracks in the Arab-Israeli peace process. As a result, a broad group of Arab states sat down with Israel and began to cooperate on a wide range of regional issues in what became known as the Middle East multilaterals. Yet why did enemies reluctant even to recognize one another choose to cooperate on regional problems? And once this process began, what drove the parties to continue such cooperation or, in some cases, halt their cooperative efforts? Beyond the Handshake addresses these fundamental questions, exploring the origins of the multilaterals and the development of multilateral cooperation in the areas of arms control and regional security, economic development, water management, and the environment. Dalia Dassa Kaye, challenging conventional concepts of cooperation, argues that multilateral cooperation in the Middle East must be appreciated as a process of interaction rather than solely as a set of outcomes. Presenting theoretical insights of value to students of regional and international relations, Beyond the Handshake provides a unique look at the evolving nature of Arab-Israeli relations and exposes the foundation the multilateral peace process laid for future regional cooperation in the Middle East.