How did warfare originate? Was it human genetics? Social competition? The rise of complexity? Intensive study of the long-term hunter-gatherer past brings us closer to an answer. The original chapters in this volume examine cultural areas on five continents where there is archaeological, ethnographic, and historical evidence for hunter-gatherer conflict despite high degrees of mobility, small populations, and relatively egalitarian social structures. Their controversial conclusions will elicit interest among anthropologists, archaeologists, and those in conflict studies.
Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past provides documentation for violence in human societies from a variety of sources and perspectives. Many of the essays focus strongly on evidence of violence left in the skeleton, but the book also includes studies from ethnographic accounts and conclusions drawn from the archaeological record. Thus, rather than only considering violence as recorded in the bones, an interdisciplinary approach is presented with an array of examples drawn from case studies in archaeology, ethnology, and osteology. Anthropologists have sometimes avoided discussions of "troubles in the human family," but this book forces new evaluations of days passed when life was not always peaceful between people and among neighbors.
Why do humans go to war? Have we been waging war ever since we first existed as a species? Is a propensity to wage war part of what it is to be human, or more a result of the evolution of human society? And has there been a decline in war-making over time - or is this just a pious hope? Azar Gat here draws together insights from evolutionary theory, anthropology, history, historical sociology, and political science to address these fundamental questions about the history of our species- the answers to which also have big implications for our species' future survival. The book reveals that theories regarding the recent decline of war, such as the 'democratic peace' and 'capitalist peace', capture merely elements of a broader Modernization Peace that has been growing since the onset of the industrial age in the early 19th century.
In this handbook, a diverse range of leading scholars consider the social, cultural, economic, political, and developmental underpinnings of peace. This handbook is a much-needed response to the failures of contemporary peacebuilding missions and narrow disciplinary debates, both of which have outlined the need for more interdisciplinary work in International Relations and Peace and Conflict studies. Scholars, students, and policymakers are often disillusioned with universalist and northern-dominated approaches, and a better understanding of the variations of peace and its building blocks, across different regions, is required. Collectively, these chapters promote a more differentiated notion of peace, employing comparative analysis to explain how peace is debated and contested.
Evidence amassed in Troubled Times indicates that, much like in the modern world, violence was not an uncommon aspect of prehistoric dispute resolution. From the civilizations of the American Southwest to the Mesolithic of Central Europe, the contributors examine violence in hunter-gatherer as well as state societies from both the New and Old Worlds. Drawing upon cross-cultural analyses, archaeological data, and skeletal remains, this collection of papers offers evidence of domestic violence, homicide, warfare, cannibalism, and ritualized combat among ancient peoples. Beyond the physical evidence, various models and explanations for violence in the past are explored.
A profoundly heartening view of human nature, Beyond War offers a hopeful prognosis for a future without war. Douglas P. Fry convincingly argues that our ancient ancestors were not innately warlike--and neither are we. He points out that, for perhaps ninety-nine percent of our history, for well over a million years, humans lived in nomadic hunter-and-gatherer groups, egalitarian bands where warfare was a rarity. Drawing on archaeology and fascinating recent fieldwork on hunter-gatherer bands from around the world, Fry debunks the idea that war is ancient and inevitable. For instance, among Aboriginal Australians, warfare was an extreme anomaly. Fry also points out that even today, when war seems ever present, the vast majority of us live peaceful, nonviolent lives. We are not as warlike as we think, and if we can learn from our ancestors, we may be able to move beyond war to provide real justice and security for the world.
God our Savior desires everyone to be saved (1Tim 2:4). Does God get what God wants? Yes, but-- depending on how we read the Bible. The Bible is universal: One God, Sovereign Creator of everything, especially humanity in God's image, God's partner to manage creation. Science and evolution say humanity evolved, gradually acquiring superior capabilities. We have yet to transcend animal nature and acknowledge oneness of creation under God. Humans exploited our semi-divine status, becoming alienated. God chose Israelites/Jews for blessing and reconciling humanity. They exploited chosenness, so God sent the Jew Jesus to reveal God's gracious concern for all people. Roman political and Jewish religious power killed Jesus, but he appeared resurrected to his disciples, who proclaimed him Savior. God gave another Jew, Paul, a vision of Jesus resurrected and appointed him to proclaim God's reconciliation to Gentiles. Paul taught that through the faithfulness of Jesus, Gentiles too become God's people and share Israel's blessings without becoming Jews. All who experience reconciliation share Jesus's partnership with God. We toil and struggle, because we have our hope set on the living God, who is the Savior of all people, especially of those who believe (1 Tim 4:10).
Reveals the psychological intricacies of war, conflict resolution, and peace. Part of the "Contemporary Psychology" series, this book addresses ethnic conflict, torture and humiliation as a weapon, and how issues related to religion and gender contribute to violent conflict.
Stretching across continents and centuries, The Origins of War: Violence in Prehistory provides a fascinating examination of executions, torture, ritual sacrifices, and other acts of violence committed in the prehistoric world. Written as an accessible guide to the nature of life in prehistory and to the underpinnings of human violence. Combines symbolic interpretations of archaeological remains with a medical understanding of violent acts. Written by an eminent prehistorian and a respected medical doctor.
proceedings of a Prehistoric Society conference at Sheffield University
Author: Michael Parker Pearson
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd
Category: Social Science
19 papers presented at the Proceedings of a Prehistoric Society conference at Sheffield University in February 2001. (1) The ancient origins of warfare and violence (I J N Thorpe); (2) Warfare, violence and slavery in later prehistory: an introduction (Mike Parker Pearson); (3) Aggression and nonhuman primates (Pia Nystrom); (4) Sociobiology, cultural anthropology and the causes of warfare (Robert Layton); (5) The physical evidence of warfare - subtle stigmata? (Christopher J Knusel); (6) The head burials from Ofnet cave: an example of warlike conflict in the Mesolithic (Jorg Orschiedt); (7) Assessing rank and warfare-strategy in prehistoric hunter-gatherer society: a study of representational warrior figures in rock-art from the Spanish Levant, southeastern Spain (George Nash); (8) The emergence of warfare in the Early Bronze Age: the Nitra group in Slovakia and Moravia, 2200-1800 BC (Andreas Harde); (9) Warfare, redistribution and society in western Iberia (Eduardo Sanchez-Moreno); (10) Warfare, violence and the construction of masculinity in the Iron Age rock art of Valcamonica, northern Italy (Lynne Bevan); (11) The dead of Tormarton - Middle Bronze Age combat victims? (Richard Osgood); (12) Giving up weapons (David Fontijn); (13) Ritual bondage, violence, slavery and sacrifice in later European prehistory (Miranda Aldhouse Green); (14) Fragmentation, mutilation and dismemberment: an interpretation of human remains on Iron Age sites (Rebecca Craig, Christopher J Knusel and Gillian Carr); (15) The origins of warfare: later prehistory in southeastern Iberia (Gonzalo Aranda Jimencz and Margarita Sanchez Romero); (16) Weaponry, statues and petroglyphs: the ideology of war in Atlantic Iron Age Iberia (Jose Freire); (17) A palaeodemographic investigation of warfare in prehistory (Neil A Bishop and Christopher J Knusel); (18) War in prehistoric society: modern views of ancient violence (John Carman and Patricia Carman); (19) Ambushed by a grotesque: archaeology, slavery and the third paradigm (Tim Taylor).