Vector calculus is the fundamental language of mathematical physics. It pro vides a way to describe physical quantities in three-dimensional space and the way in which these quantities vary. Many topics in the physical sciences can be analysed mathematically using the techniques of vector calculus. These top ics include fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and electromagnetism, all of which involve a description of vector and scalar quantities in three dimensions. This book assumes no previous knowledge of vectors. However, it is assumed that the reader has a knowledge of basic calculus, including differentiation, integration and partial differentiation. Some knowledge of linear algebra is also required, particularly the concepts of matrices and determinants. The book is designed to be self-contained, so that it is suitable for a pro gramme of individual study. Each of the eight chapters introduces a new topic, and to facilitate understanding of the material, frequent reference is made to physical applications. The physical nature of the subject is clarified with over sixty diagrams, which provide an important aid to the comprehension of the new concepts. Following the introduction of each new topic, worked examples are provided. It is essential that these are studied carefully, so that a full un derstanding is developed before moving ahead. Like much of mathematics, each section of the book is built on the foundations laid in the earlier sections and chapters.
Building on previous texts in the Modular Mathematics series, in particular 'Vectors in Two or Three Dimensions' and 'Calculus and ODEs', this book introduces the student to the concept of vector calculus. It provides an overview of some of the key techniques as well as examining functions of more than one variable, including partial differentiation and multiple integration. Undergraduates who already have a basic understanding of calculus and vectors, will find this text provides tools with which to progress onto further studies; scientists who need an overview of higher order differential equations will find it a useful introduction and basic reference.
This brief book presents an accessible treatment of multivariable calculus with an early emphasis on linear algebra as a tool. Its organization draws strong analogies with the basic ideas of elementary calculus (derivative, integral, and fundamental theorem). Traditional in approach, it is written with an assumption that the student reader may have computing facilities for two- and three-dimensional graphics, and for doing symbolic algebra. Chapter topics include coordinate and vector geometry, differentiation, applications of differentiation, integration, and fundamental theorems. For those with knowledge of introductory calculus in a wide range of disciplines including—but not limited to—mathematics, engineering, physics, chemistry, and economics.
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Comparative Regional Analysis Using the Example of Poland
Author: Kesra Nermend
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Business & Economics
Methods used for regional development analysis are employed mainly to make forecasts and comparisons. Forecasting models of various types (e.g. econometric models) are usually used for forecasting. Recently, vector-autoregressive models (VAR) have become popular. These models were proposed by Sims in 1980. On the contrary, taxonomic methods (that are in the center of attention as far as the present publication is concerned) are most often employed to make comparisons. Linear ordering methods, including standard methods, are the most popular among ta- nomic methods. They are based on different distance and similarity measures, which leads to the fact that they do not always provide reliable information. When, for example, one construes the standard for a base year and then compares it with data for other years, it may turn out that the measure determined will have worse values than the standard for a real object (region, micro region) although this object is better from the standard. Hence, one must look for new methods employed in regional development analysis or improve hitherto existing ones in such a way so that information obtained re?ects the reality to a larger extent. The main aim of the present publication is to work out methodological basis for regional development analysis based on vector calculus together with assumptions about computer system supporting the implementation of the method suggested.