Understanding Scientific Reasoning

Author: Ronald N. Giere

Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 855

UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC REASONING develops critical reasoning skills and guides students in the improvement of their scientific and technological literacy. The authors teach students how to understand and critically evaluate the scientific information they encounter in both textbooks and the popular media. With its focus on scientific pedagogy, UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC REASONING helps students learn how to examine scientific reports with a reasonable degree of sophistication. The book also explains how to reason through case studies using the same informal logic skills employed by scientists and to analyze a complex series of propositions and hypotheses using sound scientific reasoning.

Understanding Scientific Reasoning

Author: Ronald N. Giere

Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 309

View: 250

UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC REASONING develops critical reasoning skills and works with students to improve their level of scientific and technological literacy. Giere teaches students how to understand and critically evaluate scientific information they encounter in popular and professional media. With its focus on science, Understanding Scientific Reasoning helps students learn how to examine scientific reports with a reasonable degree of sophistication. Giere explains how to reason through case studies using the same informal logic skills employed by scientists. Students sharpen their abilities to analyze a complex series of propositions and hypotheses in the same manner as scientists.

Understanding Scientific Reasoning

Author: Ronald N. Giere

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Reasoning

Page: 391

View: 786

Not everything that claims to be science is. UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC REASONING shows you easy-to-use principles that let you distinguish good science from bad information you encounter in both textbooks and the popular media. And because it uses the same processes that scientists use (but simplified), you'll know you're getting the most reliable instruction around. You'll also learn how to reason through case studies using the same informal logic skills employed by scientists.

Explaining Science

A Cognitive Approach

Author: Ronald N. Giere

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 578

"This volume presents an attempt to construct a unified cognitive theory of science in relatively short compass. It confronts the strong program in sociology of science and the positions of various postpositivist philosophers of science, developing significant alternatives to each in a reeadily comprehensible sytle. It draws loosely on recent developments in cognitive science, without burdening the argument with detailed results from that source. . . . The book is thus a provocative one. Perhaps that is a measure of its value: it will lead scholars and serious student from a number of science studies disciplines into continued and sharpened debate over fundamental questions."—Richard Burian, Isis "The writing is delightfully clear and accessible. On balance, few books advance our subject as well."—Paul Teller, Philosophy of Science

Scientific Reasoning

The Bayesian Approach

Author: Colin Howson

Publisher: Open Court Publishing

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 344

View: 876

Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach explains, in an accessible style, those elements of the probability calculus that are relevant to Bayesian methods, and argues that the probability calculus is best regarded as a species of logic.

Scientific Reasoning and Argumentation

The Roles of Domain-Specific and Domain-General Knowledge

Author: Frank Fischer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Education

Page: 280

View: 687

Competence in scientific reasoning is one of the most valued outcomes of secondary and higher education. However, there is a need for a deeper understanding of and further research into the roles of domain-general and domain-specific knowledge in such reasoning. This book explores the functions and limitations of domain-general conceptions of reasoning and argumentation, the substantial differences that exist between the disciplines, and the role of domain-specific knowledge and epistemologies. Featuring chapters and commentaries by widely cited experts in the learning sciences, educational psychology, science education, history education, and cognitive science, Scientific Reasoning and Argumentation presents new perspectives on a decades-long debate about the role of domain-specific knowledge and its contribution to the development of more general reasoning abilities.

Understanding Scientific Understanding

Author: Henk W. de Regt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 124

It is widely acknowledged that a central aim of science is to achieve understanding of the world around us, and that possessing such understanding is highly important in our present-day society. But what does it mean to achieve this understanding? What precisely is scientific understanding? These are philosophical questions that have not yet received satisfactory answers. While there has been an ongoing debate about the nature of scientific explanation since Carl Hempel advanced his covering-law model in 1948, the related notion of understanding has been largely neglected, because most philosophers regarded understanding as merely a subjective by-product of objective explanations. By contrast, this book puts scientific understanding center stage. It is primarily a philosophical study, but also contains detailed historical case studies of scientific practice. In contrast to most existing studies in this area, it takes into account scientists' views and analyzes their role in scientific debate and development. The aim of Understanding Scientific Understanding is to develop and defend a philosophical theory of scientific understanding that can describe and explain the historical variation of criteria for understanding actually employed by scientists. The theory does justice to the insights of such famous physicists as Werner Heisenberg and Richard Feynman, while bringing much-needed conceptual rigor to their intuitions. The scope of the proposed account of understanding is the natural sciences: while the detailed case studies derive from physics, examples from other sciences are presented to illustrate its wider validity.

Galileo and the Art of Reasoning

Rhetorical Foundation of Logic and Scientific Method

Author: M.A. Finocchiaro

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 481

View: 741

The work of Galileo has long been important not only as a foundation of modern physics but also as a model - and perhaps the paradigmatic model - of scientific method, and therefore as a leading example of scientific rationality. However, as we know, the matter is not so simple. The range of Galileo readings is so varied that one may be led to the conclusion that it is a case of chacun a son Galileo; that here, as with the Bible, or Plato or Kant or Freud or Finnegan's Wake, the texts themselves underdetermine just what moral is to be pointed. But if there is no canonical reading, how can the texts be taken as evidence or example of a canonical view of scientific rationality, as in Galileo? Or is it the case, instead, that we decide a priori what the norms of rationality are and then pick through texts to fmd those which satisfy these norms? Specifically, how and on what grounds are we to accept or reject scientific theories, or scientific reasoning? If we are to do this on the basis of historical analysis of how, in fact, theories came to be accepted or rejected, how shall we distinguish 'is' from 'ought'? What follows (if anything does) from such analysis or reconstruction about how theories ought to be accepted or rejected? Maurice Finocchiaro's study of Galileo brings an important and original approach to the question of scientific rationality by way of a systematic read