The analysis of how institutions are formed, how they operate and change, and how they influence behavior in society has become a major subject of inquiry in politics, sociology, and economics. A leader in applying game theory to the understanding of institutional analysis, Elinor Ostrom provides in this book a coherent method for undertaking the analysis of diverse economic, political, and social institutions. Understanding Institutional Diversity explains the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which enables a scholar to choose the most relevant level of interaction for a particular question. This framework examines the arena within which interactions occur, the rules employed by participants to order relationships, the attributes of a biophysical world that structures and is structured by interactions, and the attributes of a community in which a particular arena is placed. The book explains and illustrates how to use the IAD in the context of both field and experimental studies. Concentrating primarily on the rules aspect of the IAD framework, it provides empirical evidence about the diversity of rules, the calculation process used by participants in changing rules, and the design principles that characterize robust, self-organized resource governance institutions.
Institutional diversity serves as one of the fundamental hallmarks of American higher education. After a long history of support for many institutional types, the past 40 years have seen a decline in institutional variety. Through a discussion of history, theoretical contexts, and causes of homogenization, this monograph examines how higher education policymakers and leaders can strengthen institutional mission and preserve the benefits of institutional diversity. Higher education needs to serve a variety of functions for students, from liberal arts education to vocational training programs. No single institution or institutional type can adequately fulfill all of these roles, and this monograph considers the rewards and challenges of maintaining a healthy, beneficial diversity. It also covers the roles, purposes, trials, and benefits of institutional diversity. It provides practical examples and theoretical perspectives useful in understanding the complexities of higher education systems and the external pressures faced by colleges and universities that challenge institutional mission and threaten institutional diversity and its well-established benefits for students and society. This is the third issue of the 39th volume of the Jossey-Bass series ASHE Higher Education Report. Each monograph is the definitive analysis of a tough higher education issue, based on thorough research of pertinent literature and institutional experiences. Topics are identified by a national survey. Noted practitioners and scholars are then commissioned to write the reports, with experts providing critical reviews of each manuscript before publication.
A Practitioner's Guide to Systematic Diversity Transformation
Author: Edna Chun
Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC
Implementing systematic diversity transformation requires embracing all aspects of diversity—gender, sexual orientation, disability, gender identification, and other salient characteristics of difference—as well as race and ethnicity. This book lays out a framework for systematic and sustained diversity process that first recognizes that too many diversity initiatives have generated more statements of intent than actual change, and that audits conducted by outside bodies frequently fail to achieve buy-in or long-term impact, and are costly endeavors. The authors’ framework identifies nine dimensions that need to be addressed to achieve a comprehensive audit that leads to action, describes the underlying research-based practices, and offers guidance on ensuring that all relevant voices are heard. The process is designed to be implemented by and within the institution, saving the considerable expense of outside consulting and design. In addition, it offers flexibility in the timing and sequence of implementation, and provides the means for each institution to interrogate its unique circumstances, context, and practices. This book provides a concrete process for data gathering, analysis, and evaluation of institution-wide diversity efforts through a progressive, modular approach to diversity transformation. It provides campuses with the ability to audit, evaluate, and analyze diversity progress on the nine dimensions and prioritize areas of focus. Its systematic, research-based approach supports continuous improvement and proactively addresses accreditation criteria. The book is designed as a collaborative tool that will enable every constituency on campus—from boards of trustees, presidents, provosts, executive officers, diversity officers, deans, department heads and chairs, administrators, HR officers, faculty senates and staff councils, diversity taskforces, multicultural centers, faculty, and researchers—to identify processes and relationships that need to change and implement practices that value and support the diversity on their campuses, and undertake the transformation necessary for institutional success in a changing world. The questions and guidelines set out in this book will enable all stakeholders to: • Audit the progress on each diversity dimension • Identify gaps between research-based practices and current approaches • Tie diversity benchmarks to accreditation frameworks and strategic plans • Chart the organization’s overall progress in the development of comprehensive diversity initiatives leading toward Inclusive Excellence • Prioritize institutional diversity initiatives based upon a comparison of the current state and the desired state, availability of resources, and the importance of each dimension in relation to institutional diversity goals • Create a long-term strategy for diversity transformation that provides a concrete, research-based method for auditing progress and future planning
The work of Elinor and Vincent Ostrom represents a distinctive contribution to the study of political economy, public policy and administration, collective action, and governance theory. Efforts to present a comprehensive overview of the Bloomington School that grew around the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis (now renamed the Ostrom Workshop), which they founded more than 40 years ago, received new impetus with the award of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science to Elinor Ostrom in 2009. Since then, renewed attempts have been made to map the Ostroms’ contributions to theories of polycentric governance and collective action, and to multi-methods and comparative institutional analysis of ways of managing social and ecological systems, common pool resources, public economies, and metropolitan reform. The open-ended and multiform nature of the Ostroms’ research program defies a single comprehensive overview; yet, it is a stimulus towards both creativity and disciplinary cross-fertilization in social science research. What sets this volume apart is that it brings together theory and practice, models and work on the ground, design and creativity, empirics and norms, to outline the significance of the Ostroms’ research program for the future. Each contribution to the volume takes the Ostromian perspective as the point of departure, amplifies it and explores the ground for future work by engaging with other approaches and areas of research with which the Bloomington School has some affinities. This way of testing and extending the ideas and methods of the Ostroms is particularly appropriate since their research program, initiated and nurtured through the Workshop, has always been in-between different fields and sub-fields in the social sciences (political science, economics, public administration, law, history, anthropology), cultivating a strong interdisciplinary way of doing research and exploiting the virtuous circle between theory, analysis, model building, and empirical research. Engaging in a creative dialogue with ideas and methods of other research programs is a way of sharpening one’s analytic tools, while renovating one’s own vision of social research. This volume is a way of thinking through and beyond the Bloomington School.
Continuing and Emerging Patterns in Japan and China
Author: Cornelia Storz
Category: Business & Economics
The concept of "innovation systems" has gained considerable attention from scholars and politicians alike. The concept promises not only to serve as a tool to explain sustained economic development, but also to provide policy-makers with scientifically grounded policy options to advance the growth of economies. The thrust of much recent literature has been to review existing empirical findings in order to deduce "best practice" models which are assumed to benefit all countries in a similar fashion. However, as this book argues, such ‘universal’ models often fail in both analysis and policy prescriptions, as they do not take into account sufficiently the circumstances and development trajectories of particular countries. With a foreword by Richard Whitley, this book discusses the extent to which the diagnoses and reform recommendations of recent work on innovation theory, and the related policy recommendations, actually apply to Japan and China. Making links between behavioural economics and institutional analysis, the book covers their regulatory framework, legal and science system, the labour and capital market, and intra-firm relations. It examines the present design and reasons underlying the Japanese and Chinese innovation systems, and based on those findings, emphasises the necessity for reform to secure the future competitiveness of both countries. The book is introduced by a foreword by Richard Whitley, Professor of Organisational Sociology at Manchester Business School.
This short book provides a brief introduction to the work of the late Elinor Ostrom, 2009 Nobel Laureate in economics. Her work is of vital importance in understanding how we can manage difficult environmental problems without top-down government regulation. As Professor Ostrom suggests, examples such as European Union fisheries illustrate the difficulties of approaching the management of common-pool resources with the mindset that government regulation can be a panacea. The monograph features a lecture given by Elinor Ostrom just before she died, as well as explanations of her work, its relevance and practical examples by other eminent authors. The authors help bring this crucial economics which is extremely important for all those with an interest in tackling environmental problems related to common-pool resources. This area is often ignored in mainstream economics textbooks, but is of huge practical relevance in both developed and less-developed countries.
Challenging Institutional Analysis and Development demonstrates the importance of one of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economics winners Elinor Ostrom's research program. The Bloomington School has become one of the most dynamic, well recognized and productive centers of the New Institutional Theory movement. Its ascendancy is considered to be the result of a unique and extremely successful combination of interdisciplinary theoretical approaches and hard-nosed empiricism. This book demonstrates that the well-known interdisciplinary and empirical agenda of the Bloomington Research Program is the result of a less-known but very bold proposition: an attempt to revitalize and extend into the new millennium a traditional mode of analysis illustrated by authors like Locke, Montesquieu, Hume, Adam Smith, Hamilton, Madison and Tocqueville. As such, the School tries to synthesize the traditional perspectives with the contemporary developments in social sciences and thus to re-ignite the old approach in the new intellectual and political context of the twentieth century. The book presents an outline and a systematic analysis of the vision behind the Bloomington Research Program in Institutional Analysis and Development, explaining its basic assumptions and its main themes as well as the foundational philosophy that frames its research questions and theoretical and methodological approaches. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of social science, especially those in the fields of economics, political sciences, sociology and public administration.
This book explores the foundations of the current economic crisis. Offering a heterodox approach to interpretation it examines the policies implemented before and during the crisis, and the main institutions that shaped the model of advanced economies, particularly in the last two decades. The first part of the book provides a theoretical analysis of the crisis. The roots of the ‘great recession’ are divided into fundamentals with origins in financial liberalisation, financial innovation and income distribution, and complementary or contributory factors such as the international imbalances, the monetary policy,and the role of credit rating agencies. Part II suggests various paths to recovery while emphasising that it will be necessary to develop alternative strategies for sustainable economic recovery and growth. These strategies will require genuine political support and a new 'great European vision' to address major issues concerning the EU such as unemployment, structural regional differences and federalism. Drawing on various schools of thought, this book explains the complexities of the crisis through a wider evolutionary-institutional and heterodox framework.
Much of the existing literature within the "varieties of capitalism " (VOC) and "comparative business systems " fields of research is heavily focused on Europe, Japan, and the Anglo-Saxon nations. As a result, the field has yet to produce a detailed empirical picture of the institutional structures of most Asian nations and to explore to what extent existing theory applies to the Asian context. The Oxford Handbook of Asian Business Systems aims to address this imbalance by exploring the shape and consequences of institutional variations across the political economies of different societies within Asia. Drawing on the deep knowledge of 32 leading experts, this book presents an empirical, comparative institutional analysis of 13 major Asian business systems between India and Japan. To aid comparison, each country chapter follows the same consistent outline. Complementing the country chapters are eleven contributions examining major themes across the region in comparative perspective and linking the empirical picture to existing theory on these themes. A further three chapters provide perspectives on the influence of history and institutional change. The concluding chapters spell out the implications of all these chapters for scholars in the field and for business practitioners in Asia. The Handbook is a major reference work for scholars researching the causes of success and failure in international business in Asia.
Cognitive Tools for Expert Collaboration in Social-Ecological Systems
Author: Janne Hukkinen
Category: Business & Economics
Sustainability is a word that means different things depending on who is using it, thus underlining the potential problems involved in experts from different fields teaming up to tackle sustainability problems. In this book, Janne Hukkinen argues for a reflexive approach to sustainability as a means of coming to grips with the threatening challenges arising out of human-environment interaction. The author illustrates his argument with a case study of natural resource management in Lapland, showing how sustainability is understood holistically by academics and professionals alike. This book reflects an emerging cognitive turn in sustainability sciences, conceptualizing environmental challenges during action on our social and material environments, rather than in isolation. Hukkinen argues that this conceptual blending enables sustainability experts to hybridize themselves: to immerse themselves in the fields of other experts and imagine the other's work - both prerequisites of trans-disciplinary knowledge integration. This book shows how sustainability experts can reveal their intellectual engagements when designing scenarios and indicators and presents a rigorous framework for organizing expert collaboration.
The Political Logic of Global Economic Development
Author: Hilton L. Root
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Business & Economics
"A most interesting and informative work. The book contains excellent material and interesting analysis, and it will appeal to a broad audience."--Stanley Engerman, University of Rochester "An ambitious book, Capital and Collusion identifies the institutional reasons for the divergent growth paths of major regions in the developing world. The topic is one that will interest a broad range of readers in both academic and policy circles."--David Stasavage, London School of Economics "Root takes a very abstract notion like trust and provides a series of concrete demonstrations of how trust, or the lack of it, can affect economic performance and social welfare. He bases his arguments very skillfully on a variety of indicators that transform abstract concepts into observable phenomena and make his arguments come to life. This is a 'must read' in graduate and undergraduate courses that focus on institutions and development."--Lewis W. Snider, author of Growth, Debt and Politics: Economic Adjustment and the Political Performance of Developing Countries "In this exciting book, Hilton Root calls into question some of the "sacred cows" of contemporary thought, knocking down some of the rigid boundaries that exist among the social sciences and among concepts like developed and developing countries. A very good read for all."--Elinor Ostrom, Indiana University, author of Understanding Institutional Diversity "Capital and Collusion is a breathtaking tour de force that adds significantly to the growing literature on the political economy of development and of state failure. Hilton Root has tackled the most important question facing policymakers, leaders of international financial institutions, and students of the political economy of development: how can the incentives of leaders be changed to promote risk taking and entrepreneurship, diminish uncertainty and self-insurance, and stimulate economic growth when they benefit personally from sustained national failure? No one who wishes to understand or shape economic and social welfare can afford not to read this book."--Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, Professor of Politics, NYU
There have been numerous accounts exploring the relationship between institutions and firm practices. However, much of this literature tends to be located into distinct theoretical-traditional 'silos', such as national business systems, social systems of production, regulation theory, or varieties of capitalism, with limited dialogue between different approaches to enhance understanding of institutional effects. Again, evaluations of the relationship between institutions and employment relations have tended to be of the broad-brushstroke nature, often founded on macro-data, and with only limited attention being accorded to internal diversity and details of actual practice. The Handbook aims to fill this gap by bringing together an assembly of comprehensive and high quality chapters to enable understanding of changes in employment relations since the early 1970s. Theoretically-based chapters attempt to link varieties of capitalism, business systems, and different modes of regulation to the specific practice of employment relations, and offer a truly comparative treatment of the subject, providing frameworks and empirical evidence for understanding trends in employment relations in different parts of the world. Most notably, the Handbook seeks to incorporate at a theoretical level regulationist accounts and recent work that link bounded internal systemic diversity with change, and, at an applied level, a greater emphasis on recent applied evidence, specifically dealing with the employment contract, its implementation, and related questions of work organization. It will be useful to academics and students of industrial relations, political economy, and management.
The Road to Competition in the Building Improvement Industry by Dr Karl Myrsten Lönsam Samverkan (Profitable Collaboration, 1985) described a 20-year project aimed at promoting modernisation of the building improvement industry. The project continued after publication of the book, focusing on activities for implementation of the solution that had been designed. This process revealed a number of new needs and requirements that called for further development of the solution. Over the course of two decades, the effort has generated a series of leading-edge computer applications that many contractors in Norway, Finland and Sweden – as well as their customers – are now using on a daily basis. This book reviews the evolution of the project and the lessons that have been learned since the publication of Lönsam Samverkan. A central theme of this book revolves around the difficulties associated with changing an industry that lacks an effective market. Parallels are drawn to the challenges faced by countries that embark on the transition from a planned to a market economy. The book defines a basis for quantifying and comparing work performance. A method is then presented for introducing creative competition into the service sector and combating the corruption that runs rampant due to the emphasis on hourly rates. Meanwhile, the Swedish Public Procurement Act in its present form is exposed as a toothless tiger. Interested readers will enjoy exploring the mysterious price mechanisms that drive the expansion of market economies. The book offers a strategy for implementing a comprehensive new approach in large systems that lack effective leadership. The strategy concentrates on the practical everyday solutions that the approach has made possible.
Theories of Commercial Law, Corporate Governance and Corporate Law
Author: Petri Mäntysaari
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The theoretical basis of commercial law, corporate governance law, and corporate law is still unsatisfactory. There essentially is no theory of commercial law, and existing theories of corporate governance and corporate law cannot explain the behaviour of firms or the contents of existing regulation. This book proposes a coordinated solution for all three areas. The starting point is that all three areas deal with the organisation of firms. Commercial law, corporate governance, and corporate law are therefore studied from the perspective of the firm rather than that of the judge or the investor. Changing the perspective makes it easier to formulate an "umbrella" theory of commercial law, and theories of corporate governance and corporate law as applications of the main theory. The book provides examples of how the proposed theories work by studying legal corporate governance tools and practices that increase the sustainability of the firm. Sustainability can be bolstered by making the governance model more self-enforcing and ensuring that it fosters innovation.
A multidisciplinary analysis of the role of values and virtue in public administration, this book calls for a rediscovery of virtue. It explores ways of enabling the public sector to balance the values that are presently dominant with classic values such as accountability, representation, equality, neutrality, transparency and the public interest.
Integrating Governance and Growth in Development Strategies
Author: Brian Levy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
The development discourse has long been dominated by best practices prescriptions for reform, but these are not a useful way of responding to the governance ambiguities of the early 21st century. Working with the Grain draws on both innovative scholarship and Brian Levy's quarter century of experience at the World Bank to lay out an alternative-a practical, analytically grounded, "with-the-grain" approach to reducing poverty and addressing weaknesses in governance. Best practice prescriptions confuse the goals of development with the journey of getting from here to there. A strong rule of law, capable and accountable governments, and a flexible, level playing field business environment are indeed desirable end points. But the ability to describe well-governed states does not conjure them into existence. If the only available actions are all or nothing, then efforts at change will almost certainly fall short, leading to disillusion and despair. By contrast, this book takes as its point of departure the realities of a country's economy, polity and society, and directs attention towards the challenges of initiating and sustaining forward development momentum. The book: -- distinguishes among four broad groups of countries, according to whether polities are dominant or competitive, and whether institutions are personalized or impersonal -- identifies alternative options for governance and policy reform-top down options which endeavor to strengthen formal institutions, and options supporting the emergence of "islands of effectiveness" -- explores how to identify entry points for change where there is a good fit between divergent country contexts and alternative options for reform. Sometimes the binding constraint to forward movement can be institutional, making governance reform the priority; at other times, the priority can better be on inclusive growth. Taking the decade-or-so time horizon of practitioners, the aim is to nudge things along-seeking gains that initially may seem quite modest but sometimes can give rise to a cascading sequence of change for the better.
Substantially updated for the second edition, this engaging and innovative introduction to the environment and society uses key theoretical approaches to explore familiar objects. Features substantial revisions and updates for the second edition, including new chapters on E waste, mosquitoes and uranium, improved maps and graphics, new exercises, shorter theory chapters, and refocused sections on environmental solutions Discusses topics such as population and scarcity, commodities, environmental ethics, risks and hazards, and political economy and applies them to objects like bottled water, tuna, and trees Accessible for students, and accompanied by in-book and online resources including exercises and boxed discussions, an online test bank, notes, suggested reading, and website links for enhanced understanding Offers additional online support for instructors, including suggested teaching models, PowerPoint slides for each chapter with full-color graphics, and supplementary images and teaching material
Scholars and governments recognize the importance of policy development and implementation for population health, but there is a lack of systematic theoretical and conceptual development in the health field to address the issue. Health Promotion and the Policy Process is the first book to take an in-depth look at the theoretical advances in the political sciences, including discussing the significance of political economy and sociology, which so far have made little progress in health promotion development. The book argues that focusing on how public policies work makes it possible to move beyond the more behavioural 'health education' approach, and make the transition from political statements to political strategies. The authors draw from a wide array of theories on the policy process in the fields of political science and political sociology to illuminate health promotion strategies and objectives. For example they discuss how Kingdon's Multiple Streams Model, Sabatier's Advocacy-Coalition Framework and policy network theories can contribute to greater health equity, healthy public policies and community development. Through practical and critical tools, research, and experience-based discussion, Health Promotion and the Policy Process discusses how theories can be used to influence, evaluate, orient or implement health promotion interventions and policies. This book will be essential reading for health promoters who want to make a difference by influencing social determinants of health at the policy level including students, public health professionals, researchers, practitioners, decision makers and those concerned with applied policy research.
Westerners seem united in the belief that China has emerged as a major economic power and that this success will most likely continue indefinitely. But they are less certain about the future of China's political system. China's steps toward free market capitalism have led many outsiders to expect increased democratization and a more Western political system. The Chinese, however, have developed their own version of capitalism. Westerners view Chinese politics through the lens of their own ideologies, preventing them from understanding Chinese goals and policies. In Contemporary Chinese Political Thought: Debates and Perspectives, Fred Dallmayr and Zhao Tingyang bring together leading Chinese intellectuals to debate the main political ideas shaping the rapidly changing nation. Investigating such topics as the popular "China Model", the resurgence of Chinese Confucianism and its applications to the modern world, and liberal socialism, the contributors move beyond usual analytical frameworks toward what Dallmayr and Zhao call "a dismantling of ideological straitjackets." Comprising a broad range of opinions and perspectives, Contemporary Chinese Political Thought is the most up-to-date examination in English of modern Chinese political attitudes and discourse. Features contributions from Ji Wenshun, Zhou Lian, Zhao Tingyang, Zhang Feng, Liu Shuxian, Chen Ming, He Baogang, Ni Peimin, Ci Jiwei, Cui Zhiyuan, Frank Fang, Wang Shaoguang, and Cheng Guangyun.