Connecting Text Features, Task Demands, and Respondent Skills
Author: Sheida White
"This is a genuinely scholarly work ... It is based on [analysis of] the most up-to-date quantitative surveys that we have on adult literacy. These surveys are the gold standard in terms of documenting adult literacy in the United States ...The author analyzes these extensive surveys and puts them into a theoretical context in a way that has not been done before." – Rosemary J. Park, University of Minnesota "I don’t know of any book providing the same information. There is a shortage of literature in this area and the book is an excellent contribution." – Dolores Perin, Teachers College, Columbia University "The contribution of the theory is important – not only to adult literacy but to our understanding of the reading process at nearly every level ... Additionally, the application of multidimensional item response modeling to the new TTR theory offers a tantalizing view of how the predictive validity of a theory might be tested and used to provide practical results." – Larry Mikulecky, Indiana University Very often, individual differences in literacy performance are understood exclusively in terms of the characteristics of the reader. Drawing on a rich array of empirical research, the author presents a detailed and highly integrative new theory of functional literacy. The text-task-respondent (TTR) theory of functional literacy offers improved understanding of how successful performance on everyday literacy tasks involves a dynamic relationship among the text, the task, and the reader. This book will appeal primarily to assessment developers who wish to select tasks and texts of varying difficulty to yield more precise estimates of adult literacy; to researchers who study cognitive, linguistic, and discourse processes; and to teachers who want to find new ways to increase text comprehension among students, including English language learners and struggling readers. The text is appropriate for an advanced course in adult education, discourse analysis, educational measurement, educational psychology, literacy, or linguistics – or as a reference work for those interested in literacy.
The purpose of this volume is to present recent research in the field of the acquisition of functional literacy and its precursors. The volume aims to capture the state of the art in this rapidly expanding field. An attempt is made to clarify the vague and often inconsistent definitions of functional literacy from the perspective of development. Cognitive, linguistic, educational, and social factors of literacy development are all taken into account. The volume consists of three subsequent parts. The first part goes into phonological precursors of literacy development. In this part the focus is on the development of early language precursors of of reading and writing. The cultural foundations of these precursors are explored, and their links with reading development are dealt with in detail. Different psycholinguistic approaches are also proposed to explain the occurrence of literacy problems. In the second part, the scope is on the constraints of reading and writing efficiency at the word level and beyond. The acquisition of reading and writing is seen as a result from the interaction between phonological, orthographic, and semantic processes. A crosslinguistic perspective is taken on the role of writing system factors in the acquisition of literacy skills. The final part deals with the role of social and educational factors in literacy acquisition. Starting from a crosscultural perspective, the central issue is how the attainment of functional literacy is dependent on sociocultural variation. The predictors of more advanced levels of literacy development are considered, including foreign language literacy and adult literacy.
The policy of the World Bank has been to focus on universal primary education, rather than supporting adult literacy programmes. But slow progress in Sub-Saharan Africa has convinced the Bank that adult literacy, especially amongst women, is a key factor in promoting economic and social development. This study of programmes in Uganda shows that adult literacy programmes can be more effective than was previously thought; that government run programmes can be as effective as those run by non-governmental organisations and that there is a large, unsatisfied demand among Ugandan adults for more education.
The purpose of the volume is to open up new perspectives in the study of literacy by bringing together current research findings from linguistics, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The book divides into five parts. The first part deals with theoretical questions related to the definition and the modeling of the construct of functional literacy. The second part goes into the notion of literacy development. Both societal and individual aspects of literacy development are taken into account. In the next two parts the actual achievement of literacy in various regions of the world is dealt with. In part 3 the focus is on attaining literacy in developing societies, and in part 4 on attaining literacy in industrialized societies. In the final part the question is raised how functional literacy can be promoted through education. Starting from a cross-cultural perspective the central issue is how standards of functional literacy can be established throughout the world.
A Compendium of Articles from the Journal of Reading
Author: Marguerite C. Radencich
Publisher: International Reading Assn
The following articles are included: "Reconceptualizing the Language of Adult Literacy" (Ilsley, Stahl); "Expanding the Definition of Literacy for Adult Remedial Readers" (Heathington); "Adult Literacy Programs" (Davis); "Stages in the Reading Development of Adults" (Norman, Malicky); "Reading Concepts and Strategies of Adult Nonreaders" (Malicky, Norman); "Some Assumptions about Adult Reading Instruction" (Shuman); "Adult Literacy in Rural Areas" (Ferrell, Howley); "Views of Personal Literacy within a Prison Population" (Hansell, Voelkel); "Issues in Adult Literacy Assessment" (Metz); "Exploring Reading with Adult Beginning Readers" (Padak et al.); "'Measuring Success' in Reading in Adult Basic Education" (Finlay, Harrison); "Learning from Researching" (Fargo, Collins); "Reading Difficulty of Tests for Job Placement" (Ash); "Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM)" (Murphy); "What Works: Adult Literacy Program Evaluation" (Padak, Padak); "Profiles of and Instructional Strategies for Adult Disabled Readers" (Keefe, Meyer); "Building on Strengths" (Biggs); "Cooperative Learning Process" (Mocker); "Word Banks for Adult Literacy" (Austin-Anglea); "Picture Books to Use with Older Students" (Danielson); "Storytelling for Adults" (Ford); "High Interest-Low Readability Books for Adults" (Hill, Rabideau); "Four Poets" (Kazemek, Rigg); "Poetry in the Adult Literacy Class" (Conniff et al.); "Consumer Advocacy, Empowerment, and Adult Literacy" (Rosow); "Using Classic Novels with Adult New Readers" (Schierloh); "Writing Workshops" (Pates, Evans); "Writing Our Lives" (Stasz et al.); "Using Student Journals in the Workplace ESL [English as a Second Language] Classroom" (Sole); "Nondirective Combinatory Model in an Adult ESL Program" (D'Annunzio); "Using Computers in Adult Literacy Instruction" (Askov, Clark); "Adult Literacy in a Multiliterate Society" (Howie); "Interactive Computer-Assisted Instruction with Adults" (Finnegan, Sinatra); "College Students as Tutors for Adults in a Campus-Based Literacy Program" (D'Annunzio); "Intergenerational Adult Literacy Project" (Nickse et al.); "Training Family and Friends as Adult Literacy Tutors" (Scoble et al.); "Helping a Nonspeaking Adult Male with Cerebral Palsy Achieve Literacy" (Gipe et al.); "I Ain't Never Read My Own Words Before" (Purcell-Gates); "Use of an Educational Therapy Model with an Illiterate Adult" (Scully, Johnston); "Norman: Literate at Age 44" (Meyer et al.); "Approaches to Assessment in Workplace Literacy Programs" (Askov); "Workplace Literacy Lessons" (DeStefano); "Navajo Head Start" (Anziano, Terminello); and "Using Annual Reports for Adult Literacy Improvement" (Miller). (YLB)
Cet ouvrage tente d'analyser le concept d'éducation permanente dans le contexte tanzanien, lequel est de libérer et de développer non seulement l'individu mais la nation tout entière. Des spécialistes décrivent les caractéristiques de l'éducation permanente, l'histoire et le développement de la scolarité aux différents niveaux, l'intégration de l'éducation formelle et non-formelle.
Vision and Reading examines the intimate connection between vision, eye movements and different aspects of the reading process. Contributors are optometrists and psychologists; the combination gives an expanded perspective not available elsewhere on the treatment of children and adults with vision-related disabilities.
This encyclopedia deals with the financing and organization of adult education and continuing vocational training throughout the world. It includes lifespan development, cognition adult learning and theories, and methods for the teaching of adults.
Evidence from the National Child Development Study
Author: Mary Hamilton
Category: Adult education
The National Child Development Study is a longitudinal survey of all people who were born in the week of March 3-9, 1958 in England, Scotland, and Wales--approximately 17,000 people. A project used information collected from 12,500 of these people through interviews in 1981 when they were 23 years old. The project sought to determine (1) what practical problems beset people with literacy and numeracy difficulties; (2) which groups report difficulties with basic skills but are underrepresented in adult basic education courses; and (3) whether those who will have difficulties with numeracy and literacy in adulthood can be identified earlier in life. The study found that 13 percent of the sample reported some problems with basic skills, with about twice as many reporting problems with writing/spelling as with numeracy or reading. Many did not report any practical problems with daily life, but said the lack of skills kept them from applying for jobs. Most persons with skills problems were in paid employment, the majority in the manual working class groups. More of the group who lacked basic skills were unemployed than the group as a whole. Although men were more likely to report literacy problems, they were also more likely to have received help. People reporting basic skills problems were more likely to live in crowded housing and to have less money. (KC)