Tree Rings and Climate deals with the principles of dendrochronology, with emphasis on tree-ring studies involving climate-related problems. This book looks at the spatial and temporal variations in tree-ring growth and how they can be used to reconstruct past climate. Factors and conditions that appear most relevant to tree-ring research are highlighted. Comprised of nine chapters, this book opens with an overview of the basic biological facts and principles of tree growth, as well as the most important terms, principles, and concepts of dendrochronology. The discussion then shifts to the basic biology governing the response of ring width to variation in climate; systematic variations in the width and cell structure of annual tree rings; and the significance of tree growth and structure to dendroclimatology. The movement of materials and internal water relations of trees are also considered, along with photosynthesis, respiration, and the climatic and environmental system. Models of the growth-climate relationships as well as the basic statistics and methods of analysis of these relationships are described. The final chapter includes a general discussion of dendroclimatographic data and presents examples of statistical models that are useful for reconstructing spatial variations in climate. This monograph will be of interest to climatologists, college students, and practitioners in fields such as botany, archaeology, hydrology, oceanography, biology, physiology, forestry, and geophysics.
A top priority in climate research is obtaining broad-extent and long-term data to support analyses of historical patterns and trends, and for model development and evaluation. Along with directly measured climate data from the present and recent past, it is important to obtain estimates of long past climate variations spanning multiple centuries and millennia. These longer time perspectives are needed for assessing the unusualness of recent climate changes, as well as for providing insight on the range, variation and overall dynamics of the climate system over time spans exceeding available records from instruments, such as rain gauges and thermometers. Tree rings have become increasingly valuable in providing this long-term information because extensive data networks have been developed in temperate and boreal zones of the Earth, and quantitative methods for analyzing these data have advanced. Tree rings are among the most useful paleoclimate information sources available because they provide a high degree of chronological accuracy, high replication, and extensive spatial coverage spanning recent centuries. With the expansion and extension of tree-ring data and analytical capacity new climatic insights from tree rings are being used in a variety of applications, including for interpretation of past changes in ecosystems and human societies. This volume presents an overview of the current state of dendroclimatology, its contributions over the last 30 years, and its future potential. The material included is useful not only to those who generate tree-ring records of past climate-dendroclimatologists, but also to users of their results-climatologists, hydrologists, ecologists and archeologists. ‘With the pressing climatic questions of the 21st century demanding a deeper understanding of the climate system and our impact upon it, this thoughtful volume comes at critical moment. It will be of fundamental importance in not only guiding researchers, but in educating scientists and the interested lay person on the both incredible power and potential pitfalls of reconstructing climate using tree-ring analysis.’, Glen M. MacDonald, UCLA Institute of the Environment, CA, USA ‘This is an up-to-date treatment of all branches of tree-ring science, by the world’s experts in the field, reminding us that tree rings are the most important source of proxy data on climate change. Should be read by all budding dendrochronology scientists.’, Alan Robock, Rutgers University, NJ, USA
This book is a review and description of the state-of-the-art methods of tree-ring analy~is with specific emphasis on applications in the environmental sciences. Traditionally, methods of tree-ring analysis, or more properly in this case methods 0/ dendrochronology, were developed and used for dating archaeological and historical structures and for reconstructing past climates. The classic book Tree Rings and Climate, by H.C. Fritts, published in 1976, provided a superb introduction to the science and an in-depth description of techniques useful for extracting climatic information from tree rings. This book, which was published by Academic Press, is sadly out of print and, even though only 12 years old, lim ited in its methods and applications. This is owing to the extremely rapid development of the science since the 1970s. Only recently have tree rings as environmental sensors been fully recog nized as a valuable tool in detecting environmental change. For example, tree ring measurements have been critically important in studies of forest decline in Europe and North America. There are also attempts to use tree-ring analysis for ecological prognosis to solve large-scale regional problems including the sustain ability of water supplies, prediction of agricultural crops, and adoption of silvi cultural measures in response to ecological changes. More speculatively, dendro chronological methods are also used for dating and evaluating some astrophysical phenomena and for indicating possible increase in the biospheric carrying capac ity due to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Although there are other scientific means of dating climatic and environmental events, dendrochronology provides the most reliable of all palaeorecords. This comprehensive text addresses all of the subjects that a reader who is new to the field will need to know and will be a welcome reference for practitioners at all levels. It includes a history of the discipline, biological and ecological background, principles of the field, basic scientific information on the structure and growth of trees, the complete range of dendrochronology methods, and a full description of each of the relevant subdisciplines.
Trouet delights us with her dedication to the tangible appeal of studying trees, a discipline that has taken her to austere and beautiful landscapes around the globe and has enabled scientists to solve long-pondered mysteries of Earth and its human inhabitants.
Dendrochronologists have long estimated the impact of climate on tree-ring growth by empirical-statistical methods. The use of the model is illustrated with examples from widely differing environments, and possible future directions for model development and application are discussed. As forests are the main carbon sink on land, the results are of great importance for all global change studies.
This book describes the principles and applications of dendrochronology and dendrochemistry. It illustrates how these approaches are used to determine the history of natural and anthropogenic stresses on forest ecosystems and to evaluate the present status of the health of ecosystems. ****This abstract needs to be reworked**** This book is a combination of dendrochronology and dendrochemistry. Trees record the passage of each year by the formation of annual rings. The elements deposited in the wood serve as historical records of past environmental change due to global climate change, acidic deposition, heavy metal deposition, ground water contamination, and many other anthropogenic stresses. Dendrochemistry is currently being used as an indicator of forest health in the joint U.S. EPA/U.S. Forest Service long-term monitoring program called Forest Health Monitoring.
The study of tree-rings (dendrochronology) provides a key resource for determining dates for archaeological and other contexts where wood/charcoal is present (and so cultural chronology), and for investigating past climate and environment. In the central and east Mediterranean region Peter Ian Kuniholm is synonymous with dendrochronology and dendroarchaeology. He led the creation of numerous tree-ring chronologies for the region (from forests, buildings, archaeological sites), and demonstrated the enormous potential and power of dendrochronology to a range of topics. This rich collection of papers by an international authorship, deriving from a conference held at Cornell University in honor of Peter Kuniholm, provides wide-ranging and up-to-date discussions and assessments on a number of key topics concerning the chronology and environment of the central to east Mediterranean and Near East and the field of dendrochronology. This includes controversy - with a set of papers addressing the current debate over the dating of the great Santorini/Thera volcanic eruption in the mid second millennium BC; and famous sites and finds, including a report on the absolute dating of the extraordinary Uluburun ship of the late 14th century BC, and papers concerned with the dating and interpretation of important sites and topics such as Gordion, Akrotiri on Thera, the rise and fall of the Hittite empire, and the Anatolian Iron Age. Other papers explore the history, scope and potential of dendrochronology in the Mediterranean region. The debate over what happened around AD536-540 gets a look in also, along with papers exploring the relevance of dendrochemical approaches to identifying past environmental events (such as major volcanic eruptions), and a review of work on timberline dynamics and climate change in Greece.
Tree Growth and Climate Change in Northern Forests
Author: Rosanne D'Arrigo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A top priority in climate research is obtaining broad-extent and long-term data to support analyses of historical patterns and trends, and for model development and evaluation. Along with directly measured climate data from the present and recent past, it is important to obtain estimates of long past climate variations spanning multiple centuries and millennia. Dendroclimatic Studies at the North American Tree Line presents an overview of the current state of dendroclimatology, its contributions over the past few decades, and its future potential. The material included is not useful not only to those who generate tree-ring records of past climate-dendroclimatologists, but also to users of their results-climatologists, hydrologists, ecologists and archeologists. In summary, this book: Sheds light on recent and future climate trends by assessing long term past climatic variations from tree rings Is a timely coverage of a crucial topic in climate science portraying recent warming trends which are of serious concern today Features well-reputed scientists highlighting new advanced methodologies to reconstruct past climate change Models the tree growth environmental response
Describes the time series and patterns of climate change for North America from 1602 to 1963, which provide a basis for comparison with what can be reconstructed of climatic patterns in other parts of the world.
Biological, Methodological, and Environmental Aspects
Author: Rupert Wimmer
Publisher: C A B International
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
The analysis of tree rings has been critically important in all kinds of environmental studies including forest decline, ecological prognosis on a large scale and climate trends for the past decades to millennia. It may also provide important knowledge for forest management and the forest product industry. This book has been developed from an IUFRO meeting in Washington State, USA in July 1997 and describes the latest achievements and challenges in tree ring research from around the world.