Sustainable travel behaviours have long been sought after in cities around the world, particularly in industrialised countries, but also increasingly in the emerging cities of Asia, South America and Africa. Progress however appears difficult to make as the private car, still largely fuelled by petrol or diesel, remains the mainstream mode of use. Transport is the key sector where carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are difficult to reduce. This book seeks to develop achievable low CO2 emission futures for transport in a range of international case studies. The aim is that the scenarios as developed, and the consideration of implementation and transition issues, can help us plan for and achieve attractive future lifestyles at the city level, rather than 'sleepwalk' into climate change difficulties, oil scarcity, poor qualities of life, and to continue with the large casualty figures. High fuel prices in the future may mean that parts of our cities and wider regions become redundant and residents suffer from low levels of accessibility. The topic is thus critical, with transport viewed as central to the achievement of the sustainable city and reduced CO2 emissions. The book's original content and presentation draws on contemporary culture to demonstrate the need for a wider and more transparent debate on future travel behaviours and lifestyles, acceptability and implementability, and the potential for using different means to sell a different but attractive future.
Sustainable mobility has long been sought after in cities around the world, particularly in industrialised countries, but also increasingly in the emerging cities in Asia. Progress however appears difficult to make as the private car, still largely fuelled by petrol or diesel, remains the mainstream mode of use. Transport is the key sector where carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions seem difficult to reduce. Transport, Climate Change and the City seeks to develop achievable and low transport CO2 emission futures in a range of international case studies, including in London, Oxfordshire, Delhi, Jinan and Auckland. The aim is that the scenarios as developed, and the consideration of implementation and governance issues, can help us plan for and achieve attractive future travel behaviours at the city level. The alternative is to continue with only incremental progress against CO2 reduction targets, to ‘sleepwalk’ into climate change difficulties, oil scarcity, a poor quality of life, and to continue with the high traffic casualty figures. The topic is thus critical, with transport viewed as central to the achievement of the sustainable city and reduced CO2 emissions.
Policies, Institutions, and Coalitions for Low Carbon Transportation in Emerging Countries
Author: Oliver Lah
Sustainable Urban Mobility Pathways examines how sustainable urban mobility solutions contribute to achieving worldwide sustainable development and global climate change targets, while also identifying barriers to implementation and strategies to overcome them. Building on city-to-city cooperation experiences in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America, the book examines key challenges in the context of the Paris Agreement, UN Sustainable Development Goals and the New Urban Agenda, including policies needed to achieve a sustainable, low-carbon pathway for transport and how an integrated policy strategy is designed to provide a basis for political coalitions. The book explores which institutional framework creates sufficient political stability and continuity to foster the take-up of and long-term support for sustainable transport strategies. The linkages of climate change and wider sustainable development objectives are covered, including success stories, best practices, and quantitative analysis for key emerging economies in public transport, walking, cycling, freight and logistics, vehicle technology and fuels, urban planning and integration, and national framework policies. Provides a holistic view of sustainable urban transport, focusing on policy-making processes, the role of institutions and successes and pitfalls Delivers practical insights drawn from the experiences of actual city-to-city cooperation and on-the-ground policy work Explores options for the integration of policy objectives and institutional structures that form coalitions for the implementation of sustainable urban mobility solutions Describes the policy, institutional, political, and socio-economic aspects in cities in five emerging economies: Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and Turkey
The scenario Dhaka City, Bangladesh, is severely affected by heavy rainfall in monsoon season and less in dry season, recurrence floods, high temperature, and other disastrous effects.The vehicle fleet of Dhaka City is growing at an accelerated rate with high vehicle population growth contributing higher rate of energy consumption and corresponding GhG emissions. Overall transport environment of Dhaka is characterized by congestion, public transport crisis, and unaffordable public transport for many people and increasing air pollution problem.The growing energy use by the transport sector is increasing energy pressure and thus contributing to climate change.The main aim of the present study is to identify a sustainable transportation system for Dhaka City to achieve environment friendly energy consumption for having no/low impact on climatic change with detailed objectives - assessing the baseline situation of transport sector and climatic condition of Dhaka City; assessing the present fuel consumption pattern in transport sector and GhG emissions from transport sector in Dhaka City and formulating guidelines to reduce transport related GhG emissions.
Climate change has demonstrated, perhaps more than any other environmental concerns, the complexities of the human-nature interrelationship and the need for embedding a far greater environmental consciousness into our social values and norms. A drastic reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions requires a transition to low carbon cities. This demands a better understanding of the interactions between social, technical, and spatial processes which constitute cities. The aim of this book is to explore these interactions and urge urban planners and other built environment professionals to revisit some of their traditional concepts, methods, and ways of thinking about what constitutes a ‘good’ city and according to whose priorities. The book brings together nine contributions ranging from broad overviews to sector-specific analysis, paying particular attention to the role of urban planning. Contributors cover climate change mitigation and adaptation, deal with different scales of analysis ranging from international and European to national and city perspectives, and discuss a range of policy sectors including housing, transport, energy, sea level rise as well as pathways for climate policy implementation. The diversity of the contributions is itself a reflection of the multitude of climate change concerns that preoccupy researchers, policy makers and practitioners. This book was published as a special issue of European Planning Studies.
Prospects and Challenges in an Age of Climate Change
Author: Stewart Barr
Category: Social Science
Geographies of Transport and Mobility aims to provide a comprehensive and evidenced account of the intellectual and pragmatic challenges for personal mobility in the twenty-first century. In doing so, it argues that geographers have a key role to play in shaping academic and policy debates on how personal mobility can become more sustainable. The book is structured in three parts. Part I explores how personal mobility has evolved since the mid-nineteenth century, plotting the intricate relationship between new forms of mobile technology, urban planning and design and social practices. Part II examines how researchers study transport and mobility, and outlines the different intellectual trajectories of transport geography and geographies of mobilities. Part III then outlines and discusses the discourse of sustainable mobility that has emerged in recent years; the ways in which social, economic and environmental sustainability can be promoted through different strategies, focusing on behavioural change and urban design. Geographies of Transport and Mobility provides a unique perspective on personal mobility by demonstrating how the way we travel has developed through complex economic and social processes. It argues that this historical context is critical for considering how mobility in the twenty-first century can be more sustainable, not just environmentally, but also economically and socially. As such, it argues for a renewed focus on sustainable place making as a way to radically shift mobility practices. Geographies of Transport and Mobility is designed to appeal to advanced level undergraduate students and researchers in the fields of geography, anthropology, psychology, sociology and transport studies.
This book explores the climate policy approaches established by various city governments. It details the strategies, plans and initiatives that have so far been designed to both mitigate and adapt to the impacts of global warming. In doing so, it considers the implications of the actions taken by leading cities and its effects on underlying theoretical assumptions relating to policy development and management processes in achieving climate policy outcomes. Cities Responding to Climate Change establishes an analytical framework that critically examines the application of performance management by city governments in their policy responses to climate change. It draws its focus on the city governments of Copenhagen, Stockholm and Tokyo to bring together and discuss the concepts, strategies and practices that have since been introduced to respond to the climate challenges faced. This book highlights the lessons to be learned by other city governments around the world contemplating serious action with climate policies to lessen the impacts of global warming. It will be of particular interest to practitioners and researchers seeking evidence of how governments deliver on their commitments and improve their effectiveness in implementing climate polices.
ÔFor a thorough and thoughtful perspective on what it will take to de-carbonize cities of the future, this book is a must-read. Technology alone, we are told, will not create the post-carbon city. As important is coming to grips with a complex web of cultural, institutional, financial, and social factors that powerfully shape mobility choices, now and in the future. A balanced, holistic approach that reveals how the many elements of contemporary transport systems work together offers the best hope for achieving more sustainable, less carbon-intensive mobility futures.Õ Ð Robert Cervero, University of California, Berkeley, US ÔThis is not just another book about transport and climate change. It sensibly places transport within the much broader concept of mobility and explores all aspects of travel behaviour, of people and goods, and the infrastructure needs to serve these, leading to a balanced set of policy proposals. This volume, compiled by an internationally eminent team of researchers, is essential reading for all those wanting a balanced and objective analysis of this critical topic.Õ Ð Roger Vickerman, University of Kent, UK ÔA unique assemblage of papers by top international experts that together cover every aspect of the transport-mobility-environment relationship Ð todayÕs central issue for transport planners worldwide.Õ Ð Sir Peter Hall, University College London (UCL), UK The transport sector has been singularly unsuccessful in becoming low carbon and less resource intensive. This book takes an innovative and holistic social, cultural and behavioural perspective, as well as covering the more conventional economic and technological dimensions, to provide a more complete understanding of the mobility and transport system and its progress towards high carbon mobility. The book uses this platform to explore the means to achieve low carbon mobility through outlining alternative pathways, through an investigation of theories of change, and through alternative visions of the low carbon transport city. The bookÕs core message is that the complexity of the mobility and transport system should not encourage inaction, but strong and immediate action. In addition to implementing a wide range of policy measures, the book argues for a fundamental change in ÔthinkingÕ when it comes to transport policy, governance and analysis approaches, before low carbon mobility becomes a reality. Bringing together the latest thinking on transport, mobility and the environment, this book will appeal to researchers and students interested in sustainability issues and sustainable transport and transport related areas in particular, including policy makers as well as a more general professional audience.
Addressing the principles of sustainability, spatial planning, integration, governance and accessibility of transport, this book focuses on the problem of providing efficient and low energy transport systems which serve the needs of everybody. It explores many of the new arguments, ideas and perceptions of mobility and accessibility in city-regions. Looking at evidence from Denmark, Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany and the UK, it considers the meaning of the key concepts of sustainable accessibility, the spatial planning model, and integrated territorial policies.
This book provides the latest knowledge and practice in responding to the challenge of climate change in cities. Case studies focus on topics such as New Orleans in the context of a fragile environment, a framework to include poverty in the cities and climate change discussion, and measuring the impact of GHG emissions.
Climate Change and Sustainable Development: Mitigation and Adaptation focuses on the link between climate change threats and sustainable development goals. This book analyzes the polices of climate change mitigation and adaptation from an economic point of view by addressing globalization, international trade, and business opportunities and challenges. Based on extended research on energy, transportation, agriculture, and more, the case studies included in this book present business opportunities linked to mitigation and adaptation actions; from European Union greenhouse gas emission trading to climate change adaptation policies in developing countries. It presents a framework for the harmonization of climate and sustainable development policies and their mutual outcomes. Specific features: The first book to address main scientific aspects of climate change mitigation and sustainable development and how to deal with these main challenges in a harmonized way Provides practical examples of policies and business development opportunities linked with climate change mitigation and adaptation Analyses climate change challenges and provides implications for business development and good practice case studies from Europe Discusses issues of climate change at different scales ranging from macro to micro level Highlights the importance of climate change adaptation for developing countries, migration trends, city developments and agriculture As the threat of climate change grows ever more present, resources like this book, that provide and discuss necessary solutions and frameworks for ways to deal with and mitigate that threat become ever more essential. This book is a vital resource for academics, students, and professionals in any field seeking to deal with the threats from climate change, and particularly those relating to environmental and climate sciences, as well as those in political and economic fields.
Climate change impacts are scale and context specific, and cities are likely to bear some of the greatest costs. In recent years cities have begun to craft their own climate change responses against the backdrop of the reluctance displayed by nation-states in committing to emissions reductions and managing the consequences of climate change. Climate Change at the City Scale presents a fresh contribution to climate change literature, which has largely neglected the role of cities in spite of their increasingly important role in the global economy. The book focuses on the impacts of climate change in the rapidly evolving city of Cape Town, and captures the experiences of the Cape Town Climate Change Think Tank, a hybrid knowledge partnership which has produced research on a range of urban governance, impacts, mitigation and adaptation challenges by the City. Cape Town has long been acknowledged as an innovator in the area of urban environmental management, notwithstanding its limited resources to manage the demand for a more resilient and equitable future. By documenting the work and experiences of the City’s efforts to define its own climate future, the book provides a provocative case study of the way in which the science-policy interface can be managed to inform urban transformation.
Transforming Urban Transport confronts head-on the dilemma faced by a world wedded to mobility: the danger of continuing along the fossil-fuelled path and the real paucity of viable technological alternatives which can be deployed in time. To respond to the dilemma, the ideal of urban transport must be changed from auto-based mobility to systems of sustainable transport in which public transport, and non-motorised transport work together to reduce climate change pressures, enhance urban quality and preserve life and health. The book challenges the commonly held view that a combination of urbanity and higher residential density expressed in compact cities (expected to have greater public transport use) will resolve urban transport/environment problems, instead showing that transport systems can be changed to meet the environmental imperatives without the massive spatial change implied. But the problem of change of urban transport is profoundly institutional and cultural. Changes in urban mobility and transport require local institutional policy action. To support such action, the book explores new methods of governance of transport in dispersed and concentrated cities, new techniques for assessing transport need, ways of improving childhood mobility, guidelines for political mobilization, and norms of knowledge sharing. Drawing together leading scholars from different disciplines in Australia, Japan and China, this book provides a unique fusion of Asian and Australasian perspectives and engages with the coming needs of transport planning practitioners in both high density and dispersed cities.
The book deals with urban transportation planning in light of environmental sustainability and social equity. It begins with a review of the Indian urban transportation system and the issues surrounding it, and discusses the alternatives and policy directions that are being considered. It examines all the environmental issues arising out of transportation as a sector and assesses the alternatives that can be considered to improve sustainability. Further, the book not only analyses transportation modes that cater to the travel needs of the poor, so as to make them more socially equitable, but also explores measures to promote them using a multi-criteria and multi-stakeholder approach. It addresses the barriers that are bottlenecks for the implementation of cleaner fuels and modes of transport and presents an incremental approach to tackle environmental concerns, including climate change, when planning transportation in the long term. Finally, it presents the dilemma of city administrators in choosing between strategies aimed at local pollution control and those aimed at limiting global emissions. This unique book provides a comprehensive overview of “sustainable transportation.” It discusses all the important elements that are essential to transportation planners and policy makers when planning a city’s transportation. Theoretical presentations augmented by case-specific research work and the methodology used in some of the modules, make it a valuable resource for researchers working at the forefront of this area.
Without the effective participation of developing Asia, a climate crisis is certain. Within developing Asia, the key to averting such a crisis lies in low carbon transport. China, India and Asia's other emerging economies could promote fuel efficient vehicles, public transport, and sustainable urban planning. Or they could become locked into inefficient vehicles, energy intensive infrastructure, and suburban sprawl. The path they choose will have long-term implications for the entire world. And it will depend upon the extent to which they adopt a co-benefit approach. A co-benefit approach involves recognizing that some transport policies mitigate greenhouse gases while simultaneously improving urban air quality, commuting times and energy security. Accounting for these additional benefits can overcome a reluctance to bear the costs of climate actions. But it also presents unique technical, financial, and institutional challenges to decision-makers unaccustomed to optimizing multiple benefits. The book represents a pioneering effort to identify and remove barriers to a co-benefit approach in developing Asia's transport sector. The introductory section makes the case for co-benefits in developing Asia's transport sector. The second section features analytical frameworks to identify strategies with potential co-benefits, offering new findings on black carbon and dieselization. The third section grounds the analytic work in case studies on fuel switching in Pakistan, urban planning in Bandung, Indonesia, congestion charges in Beijing, vehicle restraints in Hanoi and bus rapid transit in Jakarta. A final section examines whether a post-2012 climate regime can help transform a rapidly motorizing Asia into a low carbon Asia. This book is essential reading for transport policy makers, planners, and researchers concerned with low carbon transport, climate change and development in Asia and the wider world.
This book explores the role of railways in developing sustainable low-carbon mobility by analyzing the intermodal relationship between railways and other transport modes. Focusing on geographical and governance perspectives, and taking China as a case study, it analyzes the competition and cooperation between and integration of railways and other transport modes, in order to provide guidance on future sustainable transport development. Firstly, the book examines the contribution of railways to low carbon emissions in China over recent decades by estimating the carbon dioxide emissions from various transport modes in China at national and regional levels using decomposition analysis. It then discusses the current competition and cooperation between railways and other transport modes, as well as their integration and the impact of their relationship on climate change. It also highlights how the competition between railways and other transport modes may change the passenger flows between city pairs and so alter transport carbon emissions and examines how cooperation and integration could improve passengers’ travel experience while at the same time reducing carbon emissions. Lastly, it addresses the implications for future sustainable transport development based on institutional analysis. Presenting multidisciplinary, sustainable transport research on the role of railways in reducing carbon emissions, and also offering policy recommendations for developing low-carbon, integrated transport in the future, this book is a valuable reference resource for graduates, researchers, and government managers responsible for transport development, urban planning and environmental policy.
Today, more than half of the world's population are living in cities that are now contributing 80% of global greenhouse gas emissions. They cover less than 3% of the earth's surface. And urbanization continues apace. With such a massive carbon footprint, it is vital that cities are part of the solution. Despite this, scarcely any consideration has been given to the potential impact of climate change on urban dwellers, especially in the developing countries and burgeoning megacities of Africa, Asia and Latin America, where a wide variety of environmental and development challenges are likely to further exacerbate their vulnerability to climatic effects. Green CITYnomics presents a rich set of contributions by a highly diverse group of 45 of the world's leading urban experts on climate change. In particular, it illustrates the desire some cities are already demonstrating in engaging in this war. Standing still is not an option. Budgets have to be fought for; minds have to be won over; old, untenable and unsustainable ideas and solutions must be challenged; green and sustainable solutions must be given the chance to develop and to prove themselves. Each of the cities and urban centres discussed – from Hong Kong to Dresden; from Mexico City to Qatar – are, in their own ways, heroes and examples to us all. This book provides a compelling manifesto for the world's cities in their "Urban War against Climate Change". It is essential reading for climate scientists, national and local policy-makers and scholars worldwide.
This publication examines the problems and issues of urban transport in relation to climate change in the People's Republic of China. It reviews international and local best practices for addressing such challenges. It also identifies policies, strategies, and measures to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the transport sector and recommends applicable options for implementation in the People's Republic of China.