The Shadowy History of the Secret Bank that Runs the World
Author: Adam LeBor
Category: Business & Economics
Tower of Basel is the first investigative history of the world's most secretive global financial institution. Based on extensive archival research in Switzerland, Britain, and the United States, and in-depth interviews with key decision-makers—including Paul Volcker, the former chairman of the US Federal Reserve; Sir Mervyn King, governor of the Bank of England; and former senior Bank for International Settlements managers and officials—Tower of Basel tells the inside story of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS): the central bankers' own bank. Created by the governors of the Bank of England and the Reichsbank in 1930, and protected by an international treaty, the BIS and its assets are legally beyond the reach of any government or jurisdiction. The bank is untouchable. Swiss authorities have no jurisdiction over the bank or its premises. The BIS has just 140 customers but made tax-free profits of 1.17 billion in 2011–2012. Since its creation, the bank has been at the heart of global events but has often gone unnoticed. Under Thomas McKittrick, the bank's American president from 1940–1946, the BIS was open for business throughout the Second World War. The BIS accepted looted Nazi gold, conducted foreign exchange deals for the Reichsbank, and was used by both the Allies and the Axis powers as a secret contact point to keep the channels of international finance open. After 1945 the BIS—still behind the scenes—for decades provided the necessary technical and administrative support for the trans-European currency project, from the first attempts to harmonize exchange rates in the late 1940s to the launch of the Euro in 2002. It now stands at the center of efforts to build a new global financial and regulatory architecture, once again proving that it has the power to shape the financial rules of our world. Yet despite its pivotal role in the financial and political history of the last century and during the economic current crisis, the BIS has remained largely unknown—until now.
Exposing perceived fault lines in our banking and financial systems and explaining how unemployment could be cut in half in two years and worldwide prosperity restored, this book argues the existence of exotic energy sources to replace fossil fuels and consequently recommends an immediate end to fracking and offshore drilling for oil. It further urges an immediate worldwide mobilization to replace the energy source in every car, truck, tractor, ship, airplane, and house on Earth in seven years in a desperate effort to save the planet from further overheating. The book blasts government secrecy, and more than 65 years of supposed lies and disinformation, and demands full disclosure of what they know about visitors from other realms and their technology and the extent of their collaboration, including any treaties that may have been signed by them. With more than 65 years of participation in and observation of political and economic systems—beginning with the Great Depression, extending through World War II, the postwar era of hope for a better life, the Cold War, the subjugation of democracy by oligarchy, and the subtle but continuous militarization of America—Paul T. Hellyer analyzes what he believes has gone wrong with the world and its economy and suggests radical measures to introduce a universal culture of peace and cooperation.
The Nazi International, European Union, and Corporate Fascism
Author: Joseph P. Farrell
Publisher: SCB Distributors
Pursuing his investigations of high financial fraud, international banking, hidden systems of finance, black budgets and breakaway civilizations, author and researcher Joseph P. Farrell continues his examination of the post-war Nazi International, an “extra-territorial state” without borders or capitals, a network of terrorists, drug runners, and people in the very heights of financial power willing to commit financial fraud in amounts totaling trillions of dollars. Breakaway civilizations, black budgets, secret technology, occult rituals, international terrorism, giant corporate cartels, patent law and the hijacking of nature: it’s all in this book where Farrell explores what he calls ‘the business model’ of the post-war Axis elite. It is Farrell at his best—uncovering the gargantuan financial fraud and hidden technology of the breakaway civilization.
Since the recent international crises, the role and significance of international financial institutions (IFI) have been challenged. Some have argued that global financial institutions are inadequate and inefficient in performing their missions, and may be replaced by modern institutions with inclusive governance and a goal-focused approach. International Financial Institutions and Their Challenges analyzes the claimed purposes of IFIs and their failures, and proposes solutions for the future. This comprehensive account is the first book of its kind to give readers an exhaustive overview of key IFI's from the International Monetary Fund to the Islamic Development Bank. By encouraging readers to think outside the box, Lessambo enhances the current and future debates on IFIs. The book brings readers to the real challenges of international finance, and appeals to scholars in economics, finance, international studies, government studies, law, and political science, as well as professionals in finance, development experts, and employees at NGOs.
Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Construction History (7ICCH 2021), July 12-16, 2021, Lisbon, Portugal
Author: João Mascarenhas-Mateus
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
History of Construction Cultures Volume 1 contains papers presented at the 7ICCH – Seventh International Congress on Construction History, held at the Lisbon School of Architecture, Portugal, from 12 to 16 July, 2021. The conference has been organized by the Lisbon School of Architecture (FAUL), NOVA School of Social Sciences and Humanities, the Portuguese Society for Construction History Studies and the University of the Azores. The contributions cover the wide interdisciplinary spectrum of Construction History and consist on the most recent advances in theory and practical case studies analysis, following themes such as: - epistemological issues; - building actors; - building materials; - building machines, tools and equipment; - construction processes; - building services and techniques ; -structural theory and analysis ; - political, social and economic aspects; - knowledge transfer and cultural translation of construction cultures. Furthermore, papers presented at thematic sessions aim at covering important problematics, historical periods and different regions of the globe, opening new directions for Construction History research. We are what we build and how we build; thus, the study of Construction History is now more than ever at the centre of current debates as to the shape of a sustainable future for humankind. Therefore, History of Construction Cultures is a critical and indispensable work to expand our understanding of the ways in which everyday building activities have been perceived and experienced in different cultures, from ancient times to our century and all over the world.
MONEY has the power to make nations and fuel wars. It is both the subject of diplomacy and the tool of those seeking to overthrow hostile regimes at home and abroad. Germany’s hyperinflation following the First World War has entered the public consciousness as an extreme example of what can happen to a currency in conflict. What is not widely known is that it is by no means the worst case of war-induced hyperinflation. Hostile Money looks at the impact of war and revolution on national currencies – from Rome’s civil war in the first century BC to the twenty-first-century invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq by American-led forces and the economic sanctions and cyberwarfare of today.
Insight Guide to Switzerland is a pictorial travel guide in a magazine style providing answers to the key questions before or during your trip: deciding when to go to Switzerland, choosing what to see, from exploring Lake Geneva to discovering Ticino or creating a travel plan to cover key places like Zurich and the Bernese Oberland. This is an ideal travel guide for travellers seeking inspiration, in-depth cultural and historical information about Switzerland as well as a great selection of places to see during your trip. The Insight Guide Switzerland covers: The Bernese Oberland, the West, Lake Geneva, the Valais, Ticino, the Southeast, Zurich, the Northeast, Basel, the Jura, the Luzern Lowlands and Central Switzerland In this travel guide you will find: IN-DEPTH CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL FEATURES Created to explore the culture and the history of Switzerland to get a greater understanding of its modern-day life, people and politics BEST OF The top attractions and Editor's Choice highlighting the most special places to visit around Switzerland CURATED PLACES, HIGH QUALITY MAPS Geographically organised text cross-referenced against full-colour, high quality travel maps for quick orientation in Basel, the Luzern Lowlands and many more locations in Switzerland. COLOUR-CODED CHAPTERS Every part of Switzerland, from the Bernese Oberland to Zurich has its own colour assigned for easy navigation TIPS AND FACTS Up-to-date historical timeline and in-depth cultural background to Switzerland as well as an introduction to Switzerland's Food and Drink and fun destination-specific features. PRACTICAL TRAVEL INFORMATION A-Z of useful advice on everything from when to go to Switzerland, how to get there and how to get around, as well as Switzerland's climate, advice on tipping, etiquette and more. STRIKING PICTURES Features inspirational colour photography, including the stunning Matterhorn and the spectacular Lake Geneva.
The Prize in Economics, Social Democracy, and the Market Turn
Author: Avner Offer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Business & Economics
How the creation of the Nobel Prize in Economics changed the economics profession, Sweden, and the world Economic theory may be speculative, but its impact is powerful and real. Since the 1970s, it has been closely associated with a sweeping change around the world—the "market turn." This is what Avner Offer and Gabriel Söderberg call the rise of market liberalism, a movement that, seeking to replace social democracy, holds up buying and selling as the norm for human relations and society. Our confidence in markets comes from economics, and our confidence in economics is underpinned by the Nobel Prize in Economics, which was first awarded in 1969. Was it a coincidence that the market turn and the prize began at the same time? The Nobel Factor, the first book to describe the origins and power of the most important prize in economics, explores this and related questions by examining the history of the prize, the history of economics since the prize began, and the simultaneous struggle between market liberals and social democrats in Sweden, Europe, and the United States. The Nobel Factor tells how the prize, created by the Swedish central bank, emerged from a conflict between central bank orthodoxy and social democracy. The aim was to use the halo of the Nobel brand to enhance central bank authority and the prestige of market-friendly economics, in order to influence the future of Sweden and the rest of the developed world. And this strategy has worked, with sometimes disastrous results for societies striving to cope with the requirements of economic theory and deregulated markets. Drawing on previously untapped Swedish national bank archives and providing a unique analysis of the sway of prizewinners, The Nobel Factor offers an unprecedented account of the real-world consequences of economics—and its greatest prize.