The authors of this book question the assumptions of the psychometric paradigm that underlie virtually all criterion-referenced and standardized tests used in North American schools. They make a compelling case for a new science of educational testing and assessment, one that shifts decision making from central administration to individual schools and communities. Harold Berlak argues that the concept of tests as scientific instruments validated by technical experts is anachronistic and self-contradictory. He makes a case for a contextual paradigm, an approach which assumes that consensus on educational goals and national testing programs is neither possible nor desireable. Assessment practices in a democratic society must acknowledge and affirm differences in values, beliefs, and material interests among individuals and groups over the purposes and practices of schooling.
Formative Assessment and Science Education documents the findings of a research project which investigated the ways in which teachers and students used formative assessment to improve the teaching and learning of science in some New Zealand classrooms. The research documented in this book used the definition of formative assessment as `the process used by teachers and students to recognise and respond to students' learning, in order to enhance that learning, during the learning'. The book contains one detailed case study from the research, as well as cameos of instances of formative assessment. The book also contains two summaries of the research findings - a model developed to describe the process of formative assessment used by the teachers and students involved in the research, and a summary of the characteristics of formative assessment. The findings are also theorised with respect to sociocultural and discursive views of learning. This research will be of interest to graduate students and researchers, as well as teacher educators, curriculum developers, and assessment specialists.
Assessment has become one of the most significant areas of interest in educational policy development, as well as the focus of complex political, economic and cultural expectations for change. Increasingly, governments worldwide have become aware that curricula and teachers can be indirectly controlled through programmes of assessment. Opponents of centralized systems of mass assessment claim they are ill-suited to the diverse and changing needs of learners and users of assessment. In this text, the UK and US writers take the reader beyond the obvious functions of assessment, and focus upon the roles it performs in the social structuring of society. They examine the myths and assumptions that underpin assessment and testing and draw attention to its cultural context. This collection is devoted explicitly to socio-cultural studies of assessment and attempts to map the terrain of some 30 years of study in the field. Chapters are organized thematically, with background text providing comparative perspectives, key issues and further reading. The book provides a wide-ranging, structured and accessible approach to the study of socio-cultural origins and impacts of assessment.
This text provides an innovative new framework for the formative and holistic assessment of students' digital writing. It also addresses the rapid evolution of writing assessment tools, analyzing the research in clear terms for both techno-phobic and techno-savvy teachers. The author critiques computer automated scoring of student writing, for example, but also considers the possibilities and potential of the future of technology assisted assessments.
Articles and books on educational testing written for specialists in the field are often inaccessible to non-specialists, whereas those written for the layperson may oversimplify or omit key concepts and issues. Testwise fills this gap by explaining these ideas at a level that is sophisticated but requires no prior knowledge of the subject. Testwise goes beyond the technical aspects of testing to explore historical and cultural themes, the roles that different stakeholders play, and possibilities for innovation.
Educational assessment, at one time a relatively uncontroversial subject, is now riven by a diversity of views. The most crucial division is between those who continue to believe in the effectiveness of objective assessment techniques and those who favour alternative methods. This book presents an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses and rationales for both.
'once you let a clinical psychologist lay hands on this book, it is quite difficult to get it back again' - Martin Guha, Librarian, Institute of Psychiatry, London The Encyclopedia of Psychological Assessment is a landmark reference work and constitutes a definitive resource for academics, practitioners and students working in any field of applied psychological science. Psychological assessment is a key component of psychological work. Devices of scientific assessment are necessary for adequate describing, diagnosis, predicting, explaining or changing the behaviour of all subjects under examination. This double-volume collection offers complete coverage to facilitate action in each of these areas and will consequently be invaluable to psychologists in any applied setting. The two volumes of the Encyclopedia of Psychological Assessment contain a series of 235 entries, organized alphabetically, and covering a variety of fields. Each entry includes a general conceptual and methodological overview, a section on relevant assessment devices, followed by links to related concepts in the Encyclopedia and a list of references. The Encyclopedia of Psychological Assessment provides: - A comprehensive network for psychological assessment as a conceptual and methodological discipline, and as a professional activity - An overview of the complexity of assessment, which involves not only testing, but also a process of decision-making for answering relevant questions that arise in the different applied fields - A presentation of relevant issues from basic theory (theoretical perspectives, ethics) and methodology (validity, reliability, item response theory) to technology and modes of assessment (tests, instruments and equipment for measuring behavioral operations) - An attempt to unify this diverse field by offering full coverage of all areas from the most traditional, such as clinical, educational and work and organizational psychology, to the most recent applications linked to health, gerontology, neuropsychology, psychophysiology and environmental assessment. The Encyclopedia of Psychological Assessment offers a truly international perspective, both in terms of the selected authors and chosen entries. It aims to provide an integrated view of assessment, bringing together knowledge dispersed throughout several methodological and applied fields, but united in terms of its relevance for assessment. It is an essential purchase for any library with an existing collection or concern with the field of psychological science in general.
Challenge and expand students' abilities with multidimensional performance tasks! In this invaluable resource, science educators Elizabeth Hammerman and Diann Musial define a new vision for integrating science, mathematics, and language arts with instruction and assessment and encourage teachers to develop reliable processes for assessing both their teaching practice and student learning. This revised edition offers more than 20 performance assessments that promote student engagement. Each clearly articulated task correlates with current research and focuses on learning indicators linked to state and national standards. The assessments also model inquiry-based science in ways proven to increase student achievement, allowing learners to demonstrate their understanding of embedded concepts through exploration, inquiry, and application. Teachers can follow detailed guidelines to develop customized assessments or use the assessments already included to evaluate learners': • Understanding of content and processes • Development of complex thinking skills • Aptitude for science • Ability to make real-world connections Featuring learning logs, portfolios, peer interview strategies, and sample teacher-student interviews, Integrating Science With Mathematics and Literacy, Second Edition, helps educators obtain accurate performance data while giving students opportunities to examine the world in exciting ways.
Assessment has become one of the key issues in primary education over the past 10 years. This edited volume of essays brings together perspectives from all the significant participants involved in assessment in the primary school: teachers, headteachers, LEA advisors, inspectors, pupils, academics and researchers. The contributions illustrate effective assessment, and examine how it is, and can be, achieved. It will be of interest to school assessment co-ordinators, deputies and heads following NPQH courses, and lecturers on IE courses.
Several key developments challenge the field of educational measurement today: demands for tests at larger scales with higher stakes, an improved understanding of how people develop capabilities, and new technologies for interactive digital assessments. Sociocognitive Foundations of Educational Measurement integrates new developments in educational measurement and educational psychology in order to provide researchers, testing professionals, and students with an innovative sociocognitive perspective on assessment. This comprehensive volume begins with a broad explanation of the sociocognitive perspective and the foundations of assessment, then provides a series of focused applications to major topics such as assessment arguments, validity, fairness, interactive assessment, and a conception of "measurement" in educational assessment. Classical test theory, item response theory, categorical models, mixture models, cognitive diagnosis models, and Bayesian networks are explored from the resulting perspective. Ideal for specialists in these areas, graduate students, developers, and scholars in both educational measurement and fields that contribute to a sociocognitive perspective, this book consolidates nearly a decade of research into a fresh perspective on educational measurement.
The volumes in this popular series provide nurse educators with material to help them plan, conduct, and evaluate their instructional goals and accomplishments. The series addresses a broad spectrum of teaching situations, classroom settings, and clinical instruction-supervision. At some time or another all teachers are faced with the need to measure and evaluate learning in a course, workshop, continuing education program, or educational setting. This book is a complete and very practical guide to student evaluation. Readers will learn how to: apply the concepts of measurement, evaluation, and testing in nursing education; plan for classroom testing, create and administer tests, and analyze test results; and assess clinical competencies.
This book examines the challenges of cross-professional comparisons and proposes new forms of performance assessment to be used in professions education. It addresses how complex issues are learned and assessed across and within different disciplines and professions in order to move the process of “performance assessment for learning” to the next level. In order to be better equipped to cope with increasing complexity, change and diversity in professional education and performance assessment, administrators and educators will engage in crucial systems thinking. The main question discussed by the book is how the required competence in the performance of students can be assessed during their professional education at both undergraduate and graduate levels. To answer this question, the book identifies unresolved issues and clarifies conceptual elements for performance assessment. It reviews the development of constructs that cross disciplines and professions such as critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and problem solving. It discusses what it means to instruct and assess students within their own domain of study and across various roles in multiple contexts, but also what it means to instruct and assess students across domains of study in order to judge integration and transfer of learning outcomes. Finally, the book examines what it takes for administrators and educators to develop competence in assessment, such as reliably judging student work in relation to criteria from multiple sources. "... the co-editors of this volume, Marcia Mentkowski and Paul F. Wimmers, are associated with two institutions whose characters are so intimately associated with the insight that assessment must be integrated with curriculum and instructional program if it is to become a powerful influence on the educational process ..." Lee Shulman, Stanford University
Data from the National and Trial State Assessments
Author: Ina V. S. Mullis
Category: Government publications
The National Assessment of Educational Progress' (NAEP) 1992 reading assessment was administered to nationally representative samples of fourth-, eighth-, and twelfth-grade students attending public and private schools, and to state representative public-school samples of fourth graders in 43 jurisdictions. Nearly 140,000 students were assessed in all. Data were summarized on the NAEP reading proficiency scale ranging from 0 to 500, and results were reported according to three achievement levels at each grade--basic, proficient, and advanced. Major findings were that (1) 59% of the fourth graders, 69% of eighth graders, and 75% of twelfth graders reached the basic level or beyond; (2) 25%, 28%, and 37% of grade 4, 8, and 12 students met or exceeded the proficient level, respectively; (3) from 2% to 4% of students at any of the grade levels achieved the "advanced" performance level; (4) fourth graders within the basic level generally understood simple narratives; (5) eighth graders reading within the basic level demonstrated literal understanding of passages; (6) twelfth graders within the basic level were able to interpret aspects of the passages they read and make connections between their reading and their own knowledge; (7) students attending private schools had higher average reading proficiency than students at public schools; (8) considerable variation in performance existed within and across participating states; (9) females had higher average reading proficiency than males at all three grade levels; and (10) fourth graders appeared to be learning reading through varied instructional approaches. (Contains 67 tables and 9 figures of data; a detailed description of anchoring the achievement levels, an overview of procedures, state contextual background factors, and reading passages are attached.) (RS)
Practical Solutions for Aiding Learning in Higher and Further Education
Author: Nancy Falchikov
The assessment of students an activity central to the role of any professional in further and higher education, and is an area that is the subject of constant innovation and debate. This book provides a scholarly account of the many facets of assessment, with a particular focus on student involvement. Peer and self-assessment are powerful assessment tools to add to the existing tutor-based methods of assessment and feedback, and this book is a comprehensive guide to the the methods and issues involved. Practical and accessible in style, yet grounded in research and rich in evidence-based material, Improving Assessment Through Student Involvement will be valued by all FE or HE professionals wanting to enhance both the effectiveness and quality of their assessment methods.
This book reviews recent work in psychology which sheds new light on important areas of concern to primary school teachers, providing clear guidelines for good practice. The Psychology of Teaching and Learning in the Primary School details the current controversies regarding the effective teaching of reading and numeracy, how to deal with emotional and behavioural difficulties, the best methods of assessing learning, as well as teaching children to think and develop their creativity. It is a useful text for tutors and students on initial teacher training courses, and to teachers involved in professional development. Each chapter contains an editor's summary, a list of further reading, a full list of references and activities to develop and deepen the readers' understanding in each area. At the same time, the book is written in an accessible style ideal for the non-psychologist and is well illustrated with practical classroom examples.