With increases in global temperatures, the risk of overheating is expected to rise around the world. This results in a much higher dependency upon energy-intensive cooling systems and air-conditioners to provide thermal comfort, but how sustainable is this in a world where problems with the production of electricity are predicted? Vernacular houses in hot and dry central Iran have been adapted to the climate through passive cooling techniques, and this book provides a valuable assessment of the thermal performance of such housing. Shedding new light on the ability of traditional housing forms to provide thermal comfort, Thermal Comfort in Hot Dry Climates identifies the main cooling systems and methods in traditional houses in central Iran, and examines how architectural elements such as central courtyards, distinct seasonal rooms, loggias, basements and wind-catchers can contribute to the provision of thermal comfort in vernacular houses.
This paper deals with analysing the thermal comfort performance of apartment units in a typical hot, dry climatic region, through real-time monitoring and dynamic simulation adopting Environmental Systems Performance – research (ESP-r) thermal simulation software. Real-time monitoring of thermal comfort parameters was carried out in representative units for a period of six months between January and June (winter to summer). The measured data were analysed and used to validate the simulated results obtained from the ESP-r model, which was subsequently used to establish the prevailing comfort characteristics and the thermal comfort response of the residential units. Thermal comfort predictions through Fanger's expected Predicted Mean Vote (ePMV), Tropical Summer Index (TSI) and comfort temperature ( T comf ) exhibited a significant variation. During summer, ePMV and T comf estimated higher amount of heat discomfort (50% and 62%, respectively) compared to TSI index, which estimated 76% tolerable conditions when an air velocity of 1 m/s is available. During winter, TSI index indicated the prevalence of higher cold discomfort compared to the other indices. The results obtained have been used to develop predictive formulae for assessing thermal comfort for this building type, which can be used to arrive at quick thermal comfort estimates for any proposed design in a similar context.
Environmental Ergonomics addresses the problems of maintaining human comfort, activity and health in stressful environments. Its subject areas include thermal environments, illumination, noise and hypo- and hyperbaric environments. The book concentrates fundamentally on the way the thermal environment has affected human comfort, health and performance from the age of cave-dwellings to our age of skyscrapers. This book contains only papers selected from the 10th ICEE held in Japan 23-27 September 2002. The ICEE has been held biannually since 1982, and has firmly established itself as the world’s most distinguished conference in its field, offering the ideal forum for research scientists, medical doctors, engineers, administrators, technicians, healthcare professionals and students to share their work and ideas. Selected papers from the 10th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics held in Japan, 23-27 September 2002. They have been revised and peer-reviewed. Papers included in this text have been widely recognised as the catalyst for the recent advances witnessed in Environmental Ergonomics in Asia. They strike a balance between academia and industries' views on environmental ergonomics. Add this volume to your copy of the Elsevier Ergonomics Book Series.
This book provides information on the latest research findings that are useful in the context of designing sustainable houses and living in rapidly growing Asian cities. The book is composed of seven parts, comprising a total of 50 chapters written by 53 authors from various countries, mainly in the Asian region. Part I introduces vernacular houses in different Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Nepal, China, Thailand and Laos. Parts II and III then explore in depth indoor adaptive thermal comfort and occupants’ adaptive behavior, focusing especially on those in hot-humid climates. Part IV presents detailed survey results on household energy consumption in various tropical Asian cities, while Part V analyses the indoor thermal conditions in both traditional houses and modern houses in these countries. Several real-world sustainable housing practices in Asian cities are reviewed in the following part. The final part then discusses the vulnerability of expanding Asian cities to climate change and urban heat island. Today, approximately 35-40% of global energy is consumed in Asia, and this percentage is expected to rise further. Energy consumption has increased, particularly in the residential sector, in line with the rapid rise of the middle class. The majority of growing Asian cities are located in hot and humid climate regions, and as such there is an urgent need for designers to provide healthy and comfortable indoor environments that do not consume non-renewable energy or resources excessively. This book is essential reading for anyone with an interest in sustainable house design in the growing cities of Asia.
Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design Baruch Givoni Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design is the most comprehensive, up-to-date reference available on building and urban climatology. Written in clear, common-sense language by Baruch Givoni, the leading authority in the field, this book is a far-reaching look at a variety of climatic influences and their effects on individuals, buildings, and communities. Aimed at architecture and urban planning professionals and students alike, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design offers real-life solutions to climatological site planning and design issues, helping to settle disputes about site orientation, site organization, and the assembly of building materials. Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design is organized into three parts. The first, Building Climatology, analyzes human thermal comfort and the effect of architectural and structural design features including layout, window orientation, and shading, and ventilation conditions on the indoor climate. Then, Urban Climatology explores the ways in which the climate in densely built areas can differ from surrounding regional climactic conditions, for example, in temperature, wind speed, and humidity. This part further explores the effects of urban design elements, such as urban density and building height, on a city's outdoor climate. Finally, Building and Urban Design Guidelines applies the body of available research on building climatology and the effects of physical planning on the urban and indoor climates to suggest design guidelines for different regions--for example, hot-dry and hot-humid climates. Filled with lists, tables, and graphs for easy cross-referencing, as well as hundreds of visuals, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design offers readers the ability to perform a quick check of a proposed scheme against authoritative criteria. Mr. Givoni's latest volume is a unique, indispensable guide to the relationship between building design, urban planning, and climate.
27th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture
Author: Magali Bodart
Publisher: Presses univ. de Louvain
This book of Proceedings presents the latest thinking and research in the rapidly evolving world of architecture and sustainable development through 255 selected papers by authors coming from over 60 countries.
Examines the role of cultural tradition and the local environment in determining a community's attitude towards housing and its construction. The book offers practical advice to enable planners and implementers of building projects to assess effectively the community's needs.
A Design Guide for the Built Environment in Hot Climates
Author: Holger Koch-Nielsen
In hot dry or warm humid climates, more than half of the urban peak load of energy consumption is used to satisfy air-conditioning demands alone. Since the urbanization rate in developing countries is extreme, the pressure placed on energy resources to satisfy the future requirements of the built environment will be great, unless new, more cost-effective measures can be introduced. Stay Cool is an essential guide for planning and design using active design principles and passive means to satisfy human comfort requirements specifically in these climate zones, based on examples of traditional and modern constructions. The book demonstrates how a design strategy for urban environments and individual buildings, incorporating naturally occurring resources and specific energy-efficient technologies, can create a location, form and structure that promote significant energy-savings. Such strategies can be applied to low cost housing, or indeed to any other buildings, in order to improve comfort with passive means and low energy budgets. Following an outline of climatic issues, characteristics and thermal comfort requirements, the book details the available techniques and technologies that can be used to shape both built and external environments, the building envelope, material selections and natural ventilation and cooling methods to satisfy both human requirements and the need for energy efficiency. It also includes an active design checklist and summary of available design checking tools, a rehabilitation guide for existing urban, building and external environments, and solar charts. Planners, architects, engineers, technicians and building designers will find Stay Cool an inspirational guide and an essential reference when working with planning and design of the built environment in hot dry and warm humid climate zones. It will also be of benefit to students, academics and researchers with an interest in sustainable and energy-efficient architecture techniques and practice.