Slates from quarries in Wales once went to roof the world. By the late nineteenth century as many as a third of all the roofing slates produced worldwide came from Wales, competing with quarries in France and the United States. This book traces the industry from its origins in the Roman period, its slow medieval development and then its massive expansion in the nineteenth century – as well as through its long drawn-out decline in the twentieth.
Sustainability of Construction Materials, Second Edition, explores an increasingly important aspect of construction. In recent years, serious consideration has been given to environmental and societal issues in the manufacturing, use, disposal, and recycling of construction materials. This book provides comprehensive and detailed analysis of the sustainability issues associated with these materials, mainly in relation to the constituent materials, processing, recycling, and lifecycle environmental impacts. The contents of each chapter reflect the individual aspects of the material that affect sustainability, such as the preservation and repair of timber, the use of cement replacements in concrete, the prevention and control of metal corrosion and the crucial role of adhesives in wood products. Provides helpful guidance on lifecycle assessment, durability, recycling, and the engineering properties of construction materials Fully updated to take on new developments, with an additional nineteen chapters added to include natural stone, polymers and plastics, and plaster products Provides essential reading for individuals at all levels who are involved in the construction and selection, assessment and use, and maintenance of materials
This book addresses the general politics of promotion and the disputes over state assistance for the Fort William-Mallaig line, rather than the heroics and the romance of construction and operation. It reviews other schemes, more or less successful. And it examines the expectations bound up with the railway development, asking how far these had been achieved, or remained relevant, by 1914.'I think I have sometimes made two blades of grass grow where only one grew before, and that is ... perhaps the highest function a man can do for his country': Charles Forman, civil engineer, evidence in support of the Invergarry & Fort Augustus Railway, 1896.
The railway lines of the West Highlands are famous the world over for their illustrious history and unparalleled scenic beauty. Linking Glasgow with Oban, Fort William and Mallaig, the lines managed to survive the axe of Dr Beeching, whose infamous report forced the closure of almost a third of Britain's railways in the 1960s. With a detailed look at the lines, their workings and rolling stock since then, Webster examines how the West Highland network has gone on to prosper to the present day. Despite Beeching, BR’s rationalisation, privatisation, fluctuating freight traffic levels and economic downturn, it retained its unique infrastructure in the modern age. Today the use of modern traction, together with the return of steam-hauled trains, has added yet another dimension to this wonderful scenic route.