Tensor calculus is a generalization of vector calculus, and comes near of being a universal language in physics. Physical laws must be independent of any particular coordinate system used in describing them. This requirement leads to tensor calculus. The only prerequisites for reading this book are a familiarity with calculus (including vector calculus) and linear algebra, and some knowledge of differential equations.
This book introduces the reader to solving partial differential equations (PDEs) numerically using element-based Galerkin methods. Although it draws on a solid theoretical foundation (e.g. the theory of interpolation, numerical integration, and function spaces), the book's main focus is on how to build the method, what the resulting matrices look like, and how to write algorithms for coding Galerkin methods. In addition, the spotlight is on tensor-product bases, which means that only line elements (in one dimension), quadrilateral elements (in two dimensions), and cubes (in three dimensions) are considered. The types of Galerkin methods covered are: continuous Galerkin methods (i.e., finite/spectral elements), discontinuous Galerkin methods, and hybridized discontinuous Galerkin methods using both nodal and modal basis functions. In addition, examples are included (which can also serve as student projects) for solving hyperbolic and elliptic partial differential equations, including both scalar PDEs and systems of equations.
This elementary introduction pays special attention to aspects of tensor calculus and relativity that students tend to find most difficult. Its use of relatively unsophisticated mathematics in the early chapters allows readers to develop their confidence within the framework of Cartesian coordinates before undertaking the theory of tensors in curved spaces and its application to general relativity theory. Topics include the special principle of relativity and Lorentz transformations; orthogonal transformations and Cartesian tensors; special relativity mechanics and electrodynamics; general tensor calculus and Riemannian space; and the general theory of relativity, including a focus on black holes and gravitational waves. The text concludes with a chapter offering a sound background in applying the principles of general relativity to cosmology. Numerous exercises advance the theoretical developments of the main text, thus enhancing this volume’s appeal to students of applied mathematics and physics at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Preface. List of Constants. References. Bibliography.
Introductory text, geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students, applies mathematics of Cartesian and general tensors to physical field theories and demonstrates them in terms of the theory of fluid mechanics. 1962 edition.
The book sets forth the basic principles of tensors and manifolds, describing how the mathematics underlies elegant geometrical models of classical mechanics, relativity and elementary particle physics."--Jacket.
The tensorial nature of a quantity permits us to formulate transformation rules for its components under a change of basis. These rules are relatively simple and easily grasped by any engineering student familiar with matrix operators in linear algebra. More complex problems arise when one considers the tensor fields that describe continuum bodies. In this case general curvilinear coordinates become necessary. The principal basis of a curvilinear system is constructed as a set of vectors tangent to the coordinate lines. Another basis, called the dual basis, is also constructed in a special manner. The existence of these two bases is responsible for the mysterious covariant and contravariant terminology encountered in tensor discussions. A tensor field is a tensor-valued function of position in space. The use of tensor fields allows us to present physical laws in a clear, compact form. A byproduct is a set of simple and clear rules for the representation of vector differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian in curvilinear coordinate systems. This book is a clear, concise, and self-contained treatment of tensors, tensor fields, and their applications. The book contains practically all the material on tensors needed for applications. It shows how this material is applied in mechanics, covering the foundations of the linear theories of elasticity and elastic shells. The main results are all presented in the first four chapters. The remainder of the book shows how one can apply these results to differential geometry and the study of various types of objects in continuum mechanics such as elastic bodies, plates, and shells. Each chapter of this new edition is supplied with exercises and problems most with solutions, hints, or answers to help the reader progress. An extended appendix serves as a handbook-style summary of all important formulas contained in the book.
Nils K. Oeijord’s research since 1999 shows that we have a worldwide general genetic catastrophe (GGC) due to general local and global manmade mutagenic pollution. The GGC began in the 1700s, increased in the 1800s, and exploded in the 1900s. The HIGH and INCREASING prevalence and the HIGH and INCREASING incidence of gene damage and genetic diseases all over the world logically prove the existence of the GGC. Nils K. Oeijord is a science writer, a former researcher (plant production), a former assistant professor (mathematics), and a former science and mathematics lecturer (high school). He is the discoverer of the general genetic catastrophe, and has earned a place in Who’s Who in the World (28th Edition), in Great Minds of the 21st Century (5th Edition), and in 2000 Outstanding Intellectuals of the 21st Century (2011 Edition).
This short primer provides a concise and tutorial-style introduction to transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids , in particular the transport of mass, energy and momentum. The reader will find detailed derivations of the transport equations for these phenomena, as well as selected analytical solutions to the transport equations in some simple geometries. After a brief introduction to the basic mathematics used in the text, Chapter 2, which deals with momentum transport, presents a derivation of the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equation describing the basic flow in a Newtonian fluid. Also provided at this stage are the derivations of the Bernoulli equation, the pressure equation and the wave equation for sound waves. The boundary layer, turbulent flow and flow separation are briefly reviewed. Chapter 3, which addresses energy transport caused by thermal conduction and convection, examines a derivation of the heat transport equation. Finally, Chapter 4, which focuses on mass transport caused by diffusion and convection, discusses a derivation of the mass transport equation.
This book is about tensor analysis. It consists of 169 pages. The language and method used in presenting the ideas and techniques of tensors make it very suitable as a textbook or as a reference for an introductory course on tensor algebra and calculus or as a guide for self-studying and learning.