How Chinese characters triumphed over the QWERTY keyboard and laid the foundation for China's information technology successes today. Chinese writing is character based, the one major world script that is neither alphabetic nor syllabic. Through the years, the Chinese written language encountered presumed alphabetic universalism in the form of Morse Code, Braille, stenography, Linotype, punch cards, word processing, and other systems developed with the Latin alphabet in mind. This book is about those encounters—in particular thousands of Chinese characters versus the typewriter and its QWERTY keyboard. Thomas Mullaney describes a fascinating series of experiments, prototypes, failures, and successes in the century-long quest for a workable Chinese typewriter. The earliest Chinese typewriters, Mullaney tells us, were figments of popular imagination, sensational accounts of twelve-foot keyboards with 5,000 keys. One of the first Chinese typewriters actually constructed was invented by a Christian missionary, who organized characters by common usage (but promoted the less-common characters for “Jesus" to the common usage level). Later came typewriters manufactured for use in Chinese offices, and typewriting schools that turned out trained “typewriter girls” and “typewriter boys.” Still later was the “Double Pigeon” typewriter produced by the Shanghai Calculator and Typewriter Factory, the typewriter of choice under Mao. Clerks and secretaries in this era experimented with alternative ways of organizing characters on their tray beds, inventing an input method that was the first instance of “predictive text.” Today, after more than a century of resistance against the alphabetic, not only have Chinese characters prevailed, they form the linguistic substrate of the vibrant world of Chinese information technology. The Chinese Typewriter, not just an “object history” but grappling with broad questions of technological change and global communication, shows how this happened. A Study of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute Columbia University
Very rare volume features every known model up until 1923. Over 280 varieties include the Yu Ess, Dactygam, Dollar, Ford, Hammond, Oliver, Remington, L. C. Smith, and Underwood. 165 halftones, 95 line illustrations.
Juliet Appleton is an officer’s daughter who is forced to make her own way in the world after her father’s death. Having been trained in typewriting and shorthand, she obtains employment at a law office, only to find that she cannot bear to work with her unpleasant colleagues and employer. Juliet possesses some of the characteristics of the infamous “New Woman”: she has attended Girton College, she smokes cigarettes, and she travels the countryside on her bicycle. After various adventures, Juliet finds a new opportunity as a type-writer girl for a publishing company. She falls in love with her employer, and he with her, but complications inevitably ensue. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Canadian-born Grant Allen was a prolific professional author of popular science texts on evolution as well as a fiction writer. The Type-Writer Girl (1897) is one of only two novels he wrote under a female pseudonym, possibly to lend credibility to his first-person female narrator. The Type-Writer Girl invokes tensions typical of the fin de siècle concerning evolution, technology, and the role of women. This Broadview edition provides a reliable text at a very reasonable price. It contains textual notes but no appendices.
Gender, Class, and the Origins of Modern American Office Work, 1900-1930
Author: Sharon H. Strom
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
Category: Business & Economics
By World War I, managers wanted young women with some high school education for new "light manufacturing" jobs in the office. Women could be paid significantly less than men with equivalent educations and the "marriage bar"--the practice of not hiring or retaining married women--ensured that most of them would leave the workplace before the issue of higher salaries arose. Encouraged by free training gained in high schools and by working conditions better than those available in factories, young working-class women sought out office jobs. Facing sexual discrimination in most of the professions and higher-level office jobs, middle-class women often found themselves "falling into" clerical positions. Sharon Hartman Strom details office working conditions and practices, drawing upon archival and anecdotal data. She analyzes women office-workers' ambitions and explores how the influences of scientific management, personnel management, and secondary vocational education affected office workplaces and hierarchies. Strom illustrates how businessmen manipulated concepts of scientific management to maintain male dominance and professional status and to confine women to supportive positions. She finds that women's responses to the reorganized workplace were varied; although they were able to advance professionally in only limited ways, they used their jobs as a means of pursuing friendships, education, and independence.
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. To ensure a quality reading experience, this work has been proofread and republished using a format that seamlessly blends the original graphical elements with text in an easy-to-read typeface. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
A collection of richly illustrated articles relating to the early history of the typewriter (1870-1920). With biographies of great American inventors like James B. Hammond, Frank Lambert (who also invented a water meter and talking clock) and Louis Cantelo. Pictorial chapters on the history of office work, related to 19th Century mechanization. The book provides many hours of happy browsing and a wealth of information relating to the earliest days of the typewriter and the rise of women in the office. Some articles were previously published in the Virtual Typewriter Journal (2004-2006). Re-published after editing and with more photos.
Typing and developing keyboarding skills have a common goal from the typewriter to the computer the paper is formatted on 8-1/2" (across) by 11" (down) paper called the portrait position. Page 3 reviews common basics in measurement of how characters are perceived via the fonts on paper. Page 4 and page11 depicts the descriptive process of left and right margins from the typewriter to the computer. Centering text and top and bottom margins contiunues on pages 4, 5, and 6. Descriptive accounts of the most commonly used microsoft word keys are illustrated and detailed on pages 7, 8, and 9. This book will sharpen your skills in the mechanics of keyboarding. Learn letters and hand placement on the keyboard, practice and then take the timed writing test to see how fast you can type. Learn how to set up your margins from the typewriter to the computer, hand placement of keys, spacing within text, the most frequently used Microsoft Word keys to include formatting and drawing keys, typing tables from the typewriter to the computer, components of a formal business letter. Skills in keyboarding will be enhanced. Reflect to memory all the techniques learned in this booklet. This book is a reference guide in understanding the evolution of keyboarding from the typewriter to the computer. This 13 page book is a must read and apply. Develop and sharpen your keyboarding skills in this easy read book today! This 13 page Keyboarding Ready Reference Guide Booklet crosses the old skills of typewritig with the new skills of keyboarding learned on the computer today. Centering tables from the typewriter to the computer, Centering margins: top, bottom, left and right from the typewriter to the computer, In text spacing, practice drills, timed writing drills, and a business letter in this booklet.
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