This book puts forward the specialised lexicographical approach (SLA) as the result of a natural evolution in the field of specialised dictionary-making that goes a step further the «mere» terminographical practice. The kind of specialised lexicographical works to be obtained with this approach are specialised, active, user-friendly, user-focused, corpus-based dictionaries deeply grounded on the belief that terminology has a practical, communicative dimension that terminographical works have not normally reflected. All through this book the theoretical and applied aspects of this approach have been illustrated by showing the elaboration process of an active, corpus-based, bilingual (English-Spanish, Spanish-English) dictionary of the ceramics industry. The first part of the book provides a sound theoretical framework in which the different aspects involved in the creation of dictionaries within the SLA for speciality areas of knowledge have been progressively disclosed - namely, a review on specialised languages, corpus linguistics, terminology and socio-economic aspects - all this leading to the final characterisation of specialised lexicography from a theoretical perspective. On the basis of this theoretical framework and according to the SLA, this book also presents an innovative, corpus-based method of work for specialised dictionary-making, closely linked to the use of corpora, terminotics and new technologies.
This volume offers a collection of papers which seek to provide further insights into the way scientific and technical knowledge is communicated (i.e., written, transmitted, and translated) nowadays, not only in the academic sphere but also in society as a whole. Language in science has traditionally been valued for prioritising objective, propositional content; however, interpersonal and pragmatic dimensions as well as translation perspectives are worth exploring in order to better understand the mechanisms of specialised communication. Accordingly, the contributions in this volume cover topics of special interest to scholars and researchers in the fields of linguistics and translation, such as the popularisation and transmission of scientific knowledge via ICTs; terminology and corpus-based studies in scientific discourse; genres and discourse in scientific and technical communication; the history and evolution of scientific language; and translation of scientific texts.
The studies presented in this volume focus on two distinct but related areas of specialized communication professional and academic settings, resting on an anti-essentialist notion of identity as a phenomenon that emerges from the dialectic between individual and society. The authors start from a detailed analysis of discourse practices as evidenced in texts, their production and the professional performance patterns which underlie such practices, and explore the way the actors, roles and identities are constructed in language and discourse. In particular, by highlighting discursive attitudes and aptitudes, they underscore the need to understand discourse in light of norms of professional responsibility, showing that not only do professionals and academics use discourse to create self-identity, but they also use identity constructed through discourse to influence society.
This volume investigates the features and challenges of medical discourse between medical professionals as well as with patients and in the media. Based on corpus-driven studies, it includes a wide variety of approaches including cognitive, corpus and diachronic linguistics. Each chapter examines a different aspect of medical communication, including the use of metaphor referring to cancer, the importance of ethics in medical documents addressed to patients and the suitability of popular science articles for medical students. The book also features linguistic, textual and discourse-focused analysis of some fundamental medical genres. By combining sociological and linguistic research applied to the medical context, it illustrates how linguists and translation specialists can build bridges between health professionals and their patients.
The adoption of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Higher Education teaching has been widespread. This learning strategy has developed the need to learn foreign languages and to communicate with people with different cultural backgrounds. Culture learning should be part of language and content teaching as Higher Education involves language skills, topic comprehension and sociological capabilities. Teachers explore new teaching strategies which imply diverse goals and focus on different cultural backgrounds. The contributions of this book comment the multicultural awareness of the students involved in learning another language and the facts implied in teaching in a multicultural environment.
This book received the Enrique Alcaraz research award in 2010. This volume derives from the COMINTER-SIMULNEG research project which aims at designing a pragmatic model for the analysis of intercultural communication between Spaniards and Britons, as well as developing a teaching methodology for cultural awareness based on computer simulation of real business settings. Contributions to this volume focus on three main issues: (a) explaining intercultural communication; (b) research on intercultural business communication; (c) the use of simulation and gaming methodology for the acquisition of communicative and cross-cultural competence in business settings. This book adopts an interdisciplinary approach to the study and practice of intercultural business communication, borrowing concepts from social anthropology, social cognition, cognitive linguistics, and intercultural pragmatics.
A Sociolinguistic History of British English Lexicography traces the evolution of British English dictionaries from their earliest roots to the end of the 20th century by adopting both sociolinguistic and lexicographical perspectives. It attempts to break out of the limits of the dictionary-ontology paradigm and set British English dictionary-making and research against a broader background of socio-cultural observations, thus relating the development of English lexicography to changes in English, accomplishments in English linguistics, social and cultural progress, and advances in science and technology. It unfolds a vivid, coherent and complete picture of how English dictionary-making develops from its archetype to the prescriptive, the historical, the descriptive and finally to the cognitive model, how it interrelates to the course of the development of a nation's culture and the historical growth of its lexicographical culture, as well as how English lexicography spreads from British English to other major regional varieties through inheritance, innovation and self-perfection. This volume will be of interest to students and academics of English lexicography, English linguistics and world English lexicography.
The Grammar and Lexis of Conversational Informal English in Advanced Textbooks defends the view that the acquisition of conversational English depends highly on the kind of materials available to L2 learners. The need to acquire a proficient competence in English is growing exponentially in an incessantly demanding society, but it is the oral skill, and more specifically the ability to communicate in everyday situations, that learners are calling for. The current learning process, nonetheless, is not particularly effective, as is shown in the data collected by the Eurobarometer and published in June 2012, which shows that only 38% of the Europeans surveyed were able to maintain a conversation in English, although 67% believed it to be the most useful language to learn for personal development. The present study supports the idea expressed in The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, which states that a language is learnt “reactively, following the instructions and carrying out the activities prescribed for them by teachers and by textbooks” (2001: 141). Consequently, these materials should reflect the everyday use of informal discourse and allow learners to analyse, understand and interpret the different underlying messages conveyed by means of lexico-syntactic, as well as paralinguistic, elements. The book is divided into seven chapters in which various different linguistic aspects of conversation are dealt with. In the opening chapters, spoken language is presented and approached as a multidimensional entity, particularly as the sum of lexico-syntactic and socio-linguistic elements. The following chapters provide a description of the main characteristics of conversational English based on corpus-informed grammars and publications. The final chapter analyses twenty ESL textbooks in order to determine how corpus data has influenced the materials designed for the acquisition of conversational discourse.
Corpora are among the hottest issues in translation studies affecting both pure and applied realms of the discipline. As for pure translation studies, corpora have done their part through contributions to the studies on translational language and translation universals. Yet, their recent contribution is within the borders of applied translation studies, i.e. translator training and translation aids. The former is the major focus of the present book. The present book in fact aims at providing readers with comprehensive information about corpora in translation studies in general, and corpora in translator education in particular. It further offers researchers and practitioners a comprehensive and up-to-date survey of studies done on corpora in translator education and provides a rich source of information on pros and cons of using different types of corpora as translation aids in the context of translation classrooms.
Enhancing Quality in Multilingual Legal Communication
Author: Fernando Prieto Ramos
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
This volume provides a state-of-the-art overview of institutional translation issues related to the development of international law and policies for supranational integration and governance. These issues are explored from various angles in selected papers by guest specialists and findings of a large-scale research project led by the editor. Focus is placed on key methodological and policy aspects of legal communication and translation quality in a variety of institutional settings, including several comparative studies of the United Nations and European Union institutions. The first book of its kind on institutional translation with a focus on quality of legal communication, this work offers a unique combination of perspectives drawn together through a multilayered examination of methods (e.g. corpus analysis, comparative law for translation and terminological analysis), skills and working procedures. The chapters are organized into three sections: (1) contemporary issues and methods; (2) translation quality in law- and policy-making and implementation; and (3) translation and multilingual case-law.