Cross-border direct investment constitutes a substantial sector of the international financial market and is also an important vehicle for the transfer of technology and the modernisation of national economies. In recent years, international arbitration has gained a prominent role as a means of settlement of foreign investment disputes. The number and size of investment disputes under arbitration have risen significantly due to the growing number of bilateral investment treaties and increased use of arbitration under multilateral investment treaties. Arbitrating such disputes requires specialised skills and arbitrators with international experience. This new title, featuring contributions from leading experts in the field, deals with the procedural and substantive legal aspects of arbitrating foreign investment disputes. The chapters cover the basic framework of investment protection, the key notions of investment protection and examples and crucial aspects of arbitrating foreign investment disputes. For those involved with international investment arbitration, including practising lawyers, anyone doing business abroad and academics Arbitrating Foreign Investment Disputes: Procedural and Substantive Legal Aspects will provide high level analysis and accurate legal updates and assessments from around the world.
This open access book examines the multiple intersections between national and international courts in the field of investment protection, and suggests possible modes for regulating future jurisdictional interactions between domestic courts and international tribunals. The current system of foreign investment protection consists of more than 3,000 international investment agreements (IIAs), most of which provide for investment arbitration as the forum for the resolution of disputes between foreign investors and host States. However, national courts also have jurisdiction over certain matters involving cross-border investments. International investment tribunals and national courts thus interact in a number of ways, which range from harmonious co-existence to reinforcing complementation, reciprocal supervision and, occasionally, competition and discord. The book maps this complex relationship between dispute settlement bodies in the current investment treaty context and assesses the potential role of domestic courts in future treaty frameworks that could emerge from the States current efforts to reform the system. The book concludes that, in certain areas of interaction between domestic courts and international investment tribunals, the "division of labor" between the two bodies is not always optimal, producing inefficiencies that burden the system as a whole. In these areas, there is a need for improvement by introducing a more fruitful allocation of tasks between domestic and international courts and tribunals - whatever form(s) the international mechanism for the settlement of investment disputes may take. Given its scope, the book contributes not only to legal analysis, but also to the policy reflections that are needed for ongoing efforts to reform investor-State dispute settlement.
Petroleum Investment Arbitration at the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
Author: Ishaya Amaza
Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
The petroleum sector is characterized by heavy investments which involve the transfer of lots of capital through the use of foreign investment. It is therefore of paramount interest to such investors to safe-guard themselves against the subsequent and future acts of the host government where their investments are made where such acts are capable of having a negative impact on their investments. This has been mostly achieved by providing for a dispute settlement mechanism to settle any investment disputes that may arise between the foreign investors and the host state. This work seeks to determine if the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) remains the best option for settlement of petroleum investment disputes in such a way that it meets the expectations both parties. This will be achieved by discussing the nature of international petroleum investments and how disputes arise there from and examining the ICSID administrative procedure and adjudicatory process in the light of decided cases that arose from disputes in petroleum investments.
Treaties, Domestic Law, and Contracts on Investments in International Comparison and Arbitral Practice
Author: Bajar Scharaw
This book analyses the adequacy of Mongolia’s legal system for foreign investment protection by conducting a multi-level assessment of international investment treaties, domestic legislation of the host State, and investor-State contracts from an international comparative perspective. The investigation distinguishes between three legal dimensions, each of which offers both substantive legal guarantees for the protection of investments in the host State and provisions for the settlement of investment disputes by arbitration. In the first dimension of Public International Law (PIL), Mongolia is bound by international investment treaties, which offer investors an international law setting. In the second dimension, a special domestic investment law defines the domestic framework for the establishment, promotion and protection of investments, but also for the conclusion of investor-State contracts. These contracts in turn open a third legal dimension, which represents a cross-section through the PIL and domestic-law dimensions of investment protection. Following the development of a multi-level system with legal dimensions that are not isolated but rather interrelated and mutually reinforcing, the book examines whether Mongolia’s international investment treaties and domestic investment law reflect globally shared international and domestic standards of treatment and protection of foreign investments. Lastly, the author inquires whether the domestic laws applicable to investor-State contracts in Mongolia allow investors and the Mongolian Government to agree on protective terms according to the (not uncontroversial) standards of international contract practice.
This work deals with the current state of investment dispute resolution and analyzes the problems associated with investor-state arbitration. The author examines developments in the existing legal framework and looks at the mechanisms under existing domestic and international systems â?? such as judicial review and class actions â?? to see if these can be applied to investment dispute resolution. The author concludes that the features of traditional arbitration are not flexible enough to meet the needs of this modern form of international dispute resolution. Investment arbitration is now entering a new phase of its development. The traditional, typically arbitration-related issues of consent, privity, and confidentiality are making room for the now more important questions of disclosure, transparency, legal certainty, and consistency. The author calls for setting up a "model procedure," specifically created for international investment disputes as this would enable the establishment of a "tailor-made" process for this ever-growing area of law.
From the Creation of Rights and Obligations to the Settlement of Disputes
Author: Eric De Brabandere
Public Participation and Foreign Investment Law critically discusses the different forms of public participation that can be found or envisaged in foreign investment law. It provides the first systematic treatment of public participation in foreign investment law in its main forms and from different perspectives.
In Reshaping the Investor-State Dispute Settlement System, Jean E. Kalicki and Anna Joubin-Bret offer a broad compendium of practical suggestions for reform of the current system of resolving international investment treaty disputes through arbitration.
The Energy Charter Treaty has come of age, with almost 50 States parties and a small but growing body of arbitral case law. In this new study of the Treaty's investment protection provisions, Thomas Roe and Matthew Happold set out to identify and explain the Treaty's principal provisions and to suggest answers to some of the difficult problems thrown up by its drafting. They discuss in detail questions such as the standards of protection granted by the Treaty and the international responsibility of States for breaches of the Treaty, the various procedures available for the vindication of rights under the Treaty and the conditions to be satisfied before a claimant's complaint may be considered on the merits. Specific issues addressed include the impact of EU law on claims under the Treaty and the Treaty's provisions concerning taxation.
This book considers foreign investment flows in major Asian economies. It critically assesses the patterns and issues involved in the substantive law and policy environment which impact on investment flows, as well as the related dispute resolution law and practice. The book combines insights from international law and comparative study and is attentive to the socio-economic contexts and competing theories of the role of law in Asia. Contributions come from both academics with considerable practical expertise and legal practitioners with strong academic backgrounds. The chapters analyze the law and practice of investment treaties and FDI regimes in Asia looking specifically at developments in Japan, India, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Korea and Vietnam. The book explores the impact of the Asian Financial Crisis in the late 1990s and the Global Financial Crisis a decade later, examining actual trends and policy debates relating to FDI and capital flows in Asia before and after those upheavals. Foreign Investment and Dispute Resolution: Law and Practice in Asia is a valuable resource for practitioners, academics and students of International and Comparative Law, Business and Finance Law, Business, Finance and Asian Studies.
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
Author: Columbia Program on International Investment Karl P Sauvant Executive Director
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
This volume brings together significant contributions from leading voices in academia, the legal profession and government on the increasingly important topic of international investment and the legal system in which it operates. With the burgeoning size of international capital flows matched only by an explosion in international agreements intending to regulate the field, there is increasing potential for incoherence amongst and between treaties and arbitral decisions. Appeals Mechanism in International Investment Disputes compiles, compares and contrasts the analysis and arguments of the leading scholars, practitioners and government officials on the future of the international investment law regime. Its special emphasis is on the question of an appellate body for international investment disputes. The authors also seek ways to streamline and improve the system, channeling the benefits of free trade and investment flows to people in both the developing and emerging markets. The Appendices provide readers with extensive background material to place the chapters into context. Selected sections include concise commentaries to further illuminate the timely themes covered by the chapters. The volume is singular in its success at bringing together so many exceptional individuals on a question of growing import-how to improve the international law regime to increase prosperity and further global development. If a reader wants to know what the influential voices in international law are saying right now, and in a concise and readable format, this is the publication to have.
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) has played a leading role in establishing the field of foreign investment law. It is primarily due to the ICSID that it is no longer peculiar for individuals and corporations to have legal standing in claims against governments — probably the most notable development of international law of the last half century. Now, in its fiftieth year and ratified by more than 150 states, the ICSID received in 2015 its 500th case. This book celebrates this anniversary with an overview and analysis of ICSID case law to date and, focusing particularly on unsettled issues, assesses possible developments in the institution’s next phase. This volume collects twenty-two essays by prominent practitioners with substantial experience in investment arbitration law. The topics they cover encompass such issues as the following: • the political and economic reasons behind the creation of the ICSID; • admissibility and jurisdiction; • ICSID vis-à-vis bilateral investment treaties; • States’ concerns about the ‘partiality’ of arbitrators in favour of investors; • applicable laws under the ICSID Convention; • fact-finding rules; • conflicting interpretations of ICSID Convention provisions; • interaction of foreign investment and economic development; • value of ICSID awards in the light of EU law; • annulment of ICSID awards; • effects of denunciation (Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela) and non-contracting States (Russia, Brazil, India); • attribution of conduct of State-owned enterprises (SOEs); • counterclaims; • guarantees against political risk; and • allocation of costs. As a detailed response to the question whether ICSID has contributed as promised to an improvement in the investment climate and promoted the flow of private foreign capital — and as an assessment of the present and future feasibility of the ICSID system for the resolution of investment disputes by arbitration and conciliation — this book has no peers. Considering the current crisis of investment law, the book’s immediate value not only to investors and their counsel but also to practitioners and academics in the field of investment law and arbitration and public international law cannot be overstated. Dr Crina Baltag is the author of Kluwer’s 2012 book The Energy Charter Treaty: The Notion of Investor and the Associate Editor of Kluwer Arbitration Blog.
An increasing number of international trade disputes are settled through the WTO dispute settlement (DS) procedure. In parallel, an increasing number of international investment disputes are settled through investor-host state arbitration procedure. What does "transparency" mean in the context of international trade and investment dispute settlement? Why is enhanced transparency demanded? To what extent and in what manner should these dispute settlement procedures be transparent? The book addresses these issues of securing transparency in international trade and investment dispute settlement. Transparency in international trade and investment dispute settlement drew attention of international economic law scholars in the late 1990s, but most literature discusses the transparency in trade DS and investment DS separately. The book deals with the issue in a comprehensive and coherent manner, combining the analyses of the issue in both DS procedures and comparing the pros and cons to enhanced transparency in them. The main argument of the book is, firstly, that transparency in these procedures should be enhanced so that they may be accountable to a wider range of stakeholders, but, secondly, that the extent and the manner of transparency might differ in these two procedures, reflecting their structural and functional differences. The book appeals to both scholars and students interested in international economic law and international relations, as well as lawyers and government officials who deal with international trade and investment regulation.
Nigeria's Investment Laws, Treaties and Petroleum Agreements
Author: Khrushchev Ekwueme
Publisher: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft Mbh & Company
Category: Business & Economics
This book represents an unprecedented effort to explore Nigeria's principal investment laws in the context of international law and practice. It employs decisions of international tribunals, especially the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), to facilitate an understanding of how Nigeria's investment laws, investment treaties, and petroleum agreements protect foreign investment. It also foregrounds specific constitutional and administrative law issues intimately related to the protection of foreign investment in Nigeria, and discusses them with the aid of comparative analysis. Furthermore, the book critically analyzes regulating foreign investment by means of a multilateral agreement on investment (MAI) and offers policy suggestions that should inspire negotiations on a MAI from the perspective of a developing country like Nigeria. The central themes of this book are that the liberalization of the legal landscape for foreign investment is not by itself the silver bullet for winning and retaining high volume of FDI, and that a future MAI should consist of "smart" and forward-looking rules, which balance the commercial interests of capital-exporting countries against the development needs of capital-importing countries.