All ruminants are dependent on the microorganisms that live in their forestomach - the rumen - to break down ingested feed constituents into a form that the host animal can utilize. Protozoa are part of this complex ruminal population and are essential for the nutritional well-being and productivity of the host ruminant. Over 30 different genera (nearly 300 species) of protozoa from the rumen ecosystem have been described since their initial discovery nearly 150 years ago. This book brings together, for the first time, the available information on these protozoa. It comprehensively describes the characteristic anatomical features of value for their identification and includes detailed sections on techniques and methodologies for the isolation and cultivation of these fastidious, oxygen-sensitive microorganisms. Their occurrence, biochemistry, physiology, and role in the ruminal ecosystem are fully reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to potential improvement of the nutrition and productivity of the host ruminant through manipulation of the protozoal population and its activities.
The Rumen and Its Microbes is a contribution to the ecology of this important microbial habitat. Relatively few microbial habitats have been subjected to a thorough quantitative ecological analysis. The rumen fermentation is peculiarly suitable because of its relatively constant and continuous nature and because of the very rapid rates of conversion of organic matter. Although analysis of the ruminant-microbe symbiosis is still far from complete, knowledge is sufficient for formulation of principles and for identification and measurement of important parameters. The first eight chapters of the book include a description of the rumen and its microbes, their activities, and the extent of these activities. This basic biology provides a framework in which applications to agriculture can be evaluated. These applications are discussed in the last four chapters: host metabolism, variation in the rumen, possible practical applications, and abnormalities in rumen function.
This book offers an introduction to the microbes and microbial activity of the rumen. It offers an in-depth description of rumen bacteria, protozoa and fungi. Information is given on microbial concentrations and those factors which control or influence their numbers in the rumen. Both the synergism and negative effects resulting from microbial interactions are discussed.
The Preface to the first edition of this book explained the reasons for the publication of a comprehensive text on the rumen and rumen microbes in 1988. The microbes of the ruminant's forestomach and those in related organs in other animals and birds provide the means by which herbivorous animals can digest and obtain nutriment from vegetation. In turn, humans have relied, and still do rely, on herbivores for much of their food, clothing and motive power. Herbivores also form the food of carnivorous animals and birds in the wild. The importance of the rumen microorganisms is thus apparent. But, while a knowledge of rumen organisms is not strictly neces sary for the normal, practical feeding of farm animals, in recent years there has been much more emphasis on increasing the productivity of domesti cated animals and in rearing farm animals on unusual feedstuffs. Here, a knowledge of the reactions of the rumen flora, and the limits to these reactions, can be invaluable. In addition, anaerobic rumen-type microor ganisms are found in the intestines of omnivores, including humans, and can be implicated in diseases of humans and animals. They are also found in soils and natural waters, where they playa part in causing pollution and also in reducing it, while the same organisms confined in artificial systems are essential for the purification of sewage and other polluting and toxic wastes.
The ruminant and the rumen; the rumen bacteria; the rumen protozoa; the rumen anaerobic fungi; development of, and natural fluctuations in, rumen, microbial populations; energy yielding and consuming reactions; metabolism of nitrogen- containing compounds; polysaccharide degradation by rumen microorganisms;lipid metabolism of rumen, the genetics of rumen bacteria; microbe-microbe intercations; compartmentation in the rumen; manipulation of rumen fermentation; digestive disorders and nutritional toxicity;
Digestion, metabolism and impact of nutrition on gene expression, immunology and stress
Author: K. Sejrsen
Publisher: Wageningen Academic Publishers
Category: Technology & Engineering
The International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology (ISRP) is the premier forum for presentation and discussion of advances in knowledge of the physiology of ruminant animals. This book contains the main papers presented at the symposium.
The International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology (ISRP) is the premier forum for presentation and discussion of advances in knowledge of the physiology of ruminant animals. This book brings together edited versions of the keynote review papers presented at the symposium.