A Comprehensive Process for Defining Software Architectures That Work A good software architecture is the foundation of any successful software system. Effective architecting requires a clear understanding of organizational roles, artifacts, activities performed, and the optimal sequence for performing those activities. With The Process of Software Architecting , Peter Eeles and Peter Cripps provide guidance on these challenges by covering all aspects of architecting a software system, introducing best-practice techniques that apply in every environment, whether based on Java EE, Microsoft .NET, or other technologies. Eeles and Cripps first illuminate concepts related to software architecture, including architecture documentation and reusable assets. Next, they present an accessible, task-focused guided tour through a typical project, focusing on the architect’s role, with common issues illuminated and addressed throughout. Finally, they conclude with a set of best practices that can be applied to today’s most complex systems. You will come away from this book understanding The role of the architect in a typical software development project How to document a software architecture to satisfy the needs of different stakeholders The applicability of reusable assets in the process of architecting The role of the architect with respect to requirements definition The derivation of an architecture based on a set of requirements The relevance of architecting in creating complex systems The Process of Software Architecting will be an indispensable resource for every working and aspiring software architect—and for every project manager and other software professional who needs to understand how architecture influences their work.
Aligning Agile Processes and Software Architectures
Author: Muhammad Ali Babar
Agile software development approaches have had significant impact on industrial software development practices. Today, agile software development has penetrated to most IT companies across the globe, with an intention to increase quality, productivity, and profitability. Comprehensive knowledge is needed to understand the architectural challenges involved in adopting and using agile approaches and industrial practices to deal with the development of large, architecturally challenging systems in an agile way. Agile Software Architecture focuses on gaps in the requirements of applying architecture-centric approaches and principles of agile software development and demystifies the agile architecture paradox. Readers will learn how agile and architectural cultures can co-exist and support each other according to the context. Moreover, this book will also provide useful leads for future research in architecture and agile to bridge such gaps by developing appropriate approaches that incorporate architecturally sound practices in agile methods. Presents a consolidated view of the state-of-art and state-of-practice as well as the newest research findings Identifies gaps in the requirements of applying architecture-centric approaches and principles of agile software development and demystifies the agile architecture paradox Explains whether or not and how agile and architectural cultures can co-exist and support each other depending upon the context Provides useful leads for future research in both architecture and agile to bridge such gaps by developing appropriate approaches, which incorporate architecturally sound practices in agile methods
System Quality and Software Architecture collects state-of-the-art knowledge on how to intertwine software quality requirements with software architecture and how quality attributes are exhibited by the architecture of the system. Contributions from leading researchers and industry evangelists detail the techniques required to achieve quality management in software architecting, and the best way to apply these techniques effectively in various application domains (especially in cloud, mobile and ultra-large-scale/internet-scale architecture) Taken together, these approaches show how to assess the value of total quality management in a software development process, with an emphasis on architecture. The book explains how to improve system quality with focus on attributes such as usability, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, reusability, agility, interoperability, performance, and more. It discusses the importance of clear requirements, describes patterns and tradeoffs that can influence quality, and metrics for quality assessment and overall system analysis. The last section of the book leverages practical experience and evidence to look ahead at the challenges faced by organizations in capturing and realizing quality requirements, and explores the basis of future work in this area. Explains how design decisions and method selection influence overall system quality, and lessons learned from theories and frameworks on architectural quality Shows how to align enterprise, system, and software architecture for total quality Includes case studies, experiments, empirical validation, and systematic comparisons with other approaches already in practice.
Inthe?eldofformalmethodsincomputerscience,concurrencytheoryisreceivinga constantlyincreasinginterest.Thisisespeciallytrueforprocessalgebra.Althoughit had been originally conceived as a means for reasoning about the semantics of c- current programs, process algebraic formalisms like CCS, CSP, ACP, ?-calculus, and their extensions (see, e.g., [154,119,112,22,155,181,30]) were soon used also for comprehendingfunctionaland nonfunctionalaspects of the behaviorof com- nicating concurrent systems. The scienti?c impact of process calculi and behavioral equivalences at the base of process algebra is witnessed not only by a very rich literature. It is in fact worth mentioningthe standardizationprocedurethat led to the developmentof the process algebraic language LOTOS , as well as the implementation of several modeling and analysis tools based on process algebra, like CWB  and CADP , some of which have been used in industrial case studies. Furthermore, process calculi and behavioral equivalencesare by now adopted in university-levelcourses to teach the foundations of concurrent programming as well as the model-driven design of concurrent, distributed, and mobile systems. Nevertheless, after 30 years since its introduction, process algebra is rarely adopted in the practice of software development. On the one hand, its technica- ties often obfuscate the way in which systems are modeled. As an example, if a process term comprises numerous occurrences of the parallel composition operator, it is hard to understand the communicationscheme among the varioussubterms. On the other hand, process algebra is perceived as being dif?cult to learn and use by practitioners, as it is not close enough to the way they think of software systems.
This is a practical guide for software developers, and different than other software architecture books. Here's why: It teaches risk-driven architecting. There is no need for meticulous designs when risks are small, nor any excuse for sloppy designs when risks threaten your success. This book describes a way to do just enough architecture. It avoids the one-size-fits-all process tar pit with advice on how to tune your design effort based on the risks you face. It democratizes architecture. This book seeks to make architecture relevant to all software developers. Developers need to understand how to use constraints as guiderails that ensure desired outcomes, and how seemingly small changes can affect a system's properties. It cultivates declarative knowledge. There is a difference between being able to hit a ball and knowing why you are able to hit it, what psychologists refer to as procedural knowledge versus declarative knowledge. This book will make you more aware of what you have been doing and provide names for the concepts. It emphasizes the engineering. This book focuses on the technical parts of software development and what developers do to ensure the system works not job titles or processes. It shows you how to build models and analyze architectures so that you can make principled design tradeoffs. It describes the techniques software designers use to reason about medium to large sized problems and points out where you can learn specialized techniques in more detail. It provides practical advice. Software design decisions influence the architecture and vice versa. The approach in this book embraces drill-down/pop-up behavior by describing models that have various levels of abstraction, from architecture to data structure design.
A software architecture manifests the major early design decisions, which determine the system’s development, deployment and evolution. Thus, making better architectural decisions is one of the large challenges in software engineering. Software architecture knowledge management is about capturing practical experience and translating it into generalized architectural knowledge, and using this knowledge in the communication with stakeholders during all phases of the software lifecycle. This book presents a concise description of knowledge management in the software architecture discipline. It explains the importance of sound knowledge management practices for improving software architecture processes and products, and makes clear the role of knowledge management in software architecture and software development processes. It presents many approaches that are in use in software companies today, approaches that have been used in other domains, and approaches under development in academia. After an initial introduction by the editors, the contributions are grouped in three parts on "Architecture Knowledge Management", "Strategies and Approaches for Managing Architectural Knowledge", and "Tools and Techniques for Managing Architectural Knowledge". The presentation aims at information technology and software engineering professionals, in particular software architects and software architecture researchers. For the industrial audience, the book gives a broad and concise understanding of the importance of knowledge management for improving software architecture process and building capabilities in designing and evaluating better architectures for their mission- and business-critical systems. For researchers, the book will help to understand the applications of various knowledge management approaches in an industrial setting and to identify research challenges and opportunities.
First European Conference, ECSA 2007, Madrid, Spain, September 24-26, 2007, Proceedings
Author: Flavio Oquendo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First European Conference on Software Architecture, ECSA 2007, held in Aranjuez, Spain, September 24-26, 2007.The 12 revised long papers presented together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 62 submissions. Topics include description languages and metamodels, architecture-based code generation, run-time monitoring, requirements engineering, service-oriented architectures, aspect-oriented software architectures, ontology-based approaches, autonomic systems, middleware and web services.
This innovative book uncovers all the steps readers should follow in order to build successful software and systems With the help of numerous examples, Albin clearly shows how to incorporate Java, XML, SOAP, ebXML, and BizTalk when designing true distributed business systems Teaches how to easily integrate design patterns into software design Documents all architectures in UML and presents code in either Java or C++
PrefaceTo understand anything, you should not try to understand everything. — Aristotle The whole is greater than the sum of the parts; the part is greater than a fraction of the whole. — Aristotle Architecting is a challenging process of abstraction, composition, modularity, and simplification to create an architecture specification. An architecture specification captures the essence and definition of the system: understanding, parts, and the relationships among the parts. An architecture specification defines how a system solves a business problem within the scope of the business. — Putman Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods. You will be certain to find something that you have never seen before. — Alexander Graham Bell There are large gaps in the theory and practice of software architecture and engineering. Much is published about the representation of a software architecture, such as the Unified Modeling Language (UML), but little is available about the specification for a software architecture. Software engineering methods of domain engineering, process modeling languages, and well-formed patterns of reasoning aid in the specification of an architecture. The Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) defines the standard reference model for distributed software systems architectures, based on object-oriented techniques, accepted at the international level. RM-ODP is a standard adopted by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). RM-ODP is embedded and used actively in mission-critical systems industries such as in telecommunications, in health care, on Wall Street (financial services industry), in various Government systems (Logistics), in European Government Agencies such as UK Aviation control systems, as a foundation for the Object Management Group (OMG) Object Management Architecture (OMA), for defining enterprise architectures, and for defining software architectures. The software systems architecture work that is emerging, and is focused either at the component level or at the systems level, provides a key resource for architecting. This is enhanced by the architecting techniques of RM-ODP. This book assembles these great ideas, explains what they mean, and shows how to use them for practical benefit, along with real-world case study examples. By using the RM-ODP specification constructs, associated languages, architecture patterns of reasoning, semantic behavior specification, and conformance testing abilities, readers will be able to architect their specific systems based on the RM-ODP specification foundations, and specify architectures that work. One of the purposes of this book is to provide the approach to using the RM-ODP foundations in architecting and specifying a distributed processing system that addresses such key properties as interoperability, dependability, portability, integration, composability, scalability, transparency, behavior specification, quality of service, policy management, federation, and conformance validation. Another purpose of this book is to explain the underlying foundations for creating an architectural specification. These foundations come not only from RM-ODP, but also from the current work in software systems architecture. Another purpose is to guide the reader to understand the importance and benefits of creating an architecture specification for an enterprise. Yet another purpose is to provide the reader with the principles to construct software systems architecture (at both introductory and in-depth levels). By applying the proven techniques of RM-ODP for what makes a good architecture, readers will be able to build their own tailored architectures, and clearly represent them in UML or some other tool, with an understanding of the underlying principles. Practitioners of RM-ODP have found that the standard is extremely beneficial in guiding architecture definition and providing standard terminology/principles for distributed object applications and infrastructures from an enterprise perspective. Outstanding Features This book is intended to provide valuable insight into successful architecture specification by describing an unprecedented foundation to accomplish this task, describing the use of the foundation, explaining the relationships of the concepts of architecting, explaining the relationships of the concepts of distributed processing, and identifying the right methods and possible tools for architecting. All material for the book has been derived from actual experiences. A medical case study is used throughout the book in ever increasing detailed specification. This medical case study is based on actual experience of the author. In addition, many metamodels are provided to represent the concepts of RM-ODP. All of these metamodels are contributions from the author. This is information that readers can use and apply in their architecting today. RM-ODP provides a reference framework, grammars, methods of abstraction and composition, and separation of concerns to achieve an architecture specification of the system. RM-ODP provides a framework for this separation, using viewpoints, as well as separating out certain decisions (e.g., product decisions) until later. Further, the reference model provides a set of definitions, which always aids in communicating with others. There is little in the literature about RM-ODP or architecture specification, and certainly not a book dedicated as a tutorial of these subjects. Now there is. In summary, this book offers the following: How to manage the architecting process in the lifecycle of a system How to solve many architecture reuse and cost-effectiveness problems How to create a business specification How to understand and use the concepts of distributed processing in an architecture How to architect effectively How to specify an architecture How to understand and specify semantic behavior and nonfunctional properties of a system (the "ilities") How to provide the right level of detail in an architecture specification How to ensure the implementation conforms to the architecture specification How to use RM-ODP effectively How to use popular tools, such as UML, to describe an architecture A definitive tutorial of RM-ODP Audience This book is designed for: Those in the Distributed Software Systems Architecture community who are interested in a methodology for using proven architecture principles. Professional software architects who are looking for new ideas about architecting a system. Within this book, the reader will find discussions of the techniques for architecting, for creating an architecture specification, and RM-ODP's relationship to other architecture frameworks. Program managers interested in how to create a cost-effective architecture within their enterprise that focuses on the needs of the enterprise and solves an enterprise problem. They will learn how do to do this through an overview of RM-ODP, the program benefits for using it, and where RM-ODP fits in the system lifecycle process. Systems engineers interested in the lifecycle approach to enterprise architecture specification. Experienced engineers interested in expanding their understanding of how to create a valid architecture specification and gain an understanding of the distributed processing system concepts, why certain constructions are valid and why some are not, what is to be specified and how, and some new ideas and approaches to architecting a system. The reader will be able to develop a collection of useful distributed processing architecting techniques that expand upon the current software systems architecture capabilities. Developers interested in the practice of architecture specification and aligning current technology to achieve a workable system, while allowing evolutionary changes in technology solutions. Researchers interested in solutions and aids for furthering the research work in architecture specification. Individuals in the software community who are generally interested in the application of an architecture method. Readers will find examples of the applications of RM-ODP and specific analysis techniques. The expected audience will be novice and mid-level program managers, software engineers, those in the IEEE, DoD, research communities, consortia, and general architecture readers. This book can be used as a textbook and reference book for studies in the methods of architecture; for graduate studies in software architecture specification; for training information about software architecture and RM-ODP; for further education of consultants, integration specialists, and acquisition managers who need to approve and fund such work; and for researchers who are expanding the discipline of software architecture. The inclusion of RM-ODP will bring to the U.S., principally, the outstanding work that was accomplished by the international standards working group. In brief, the RM-ODP principles form a solution set and foundation for all software architecting endeavors. It is the formalized framework for this topic, and at the International Standard (IS) level of acceptance. It forms a solution set and foundation for reuse of design patterns to provide cost-effective software architecture. It is the process for this topic, but has never before been described in a book. Many program managers (who typically set the stage as to the methodology of choice for a project), software engineers, and researchers in academia and in DARPA are unaware of the power and solutions provided by the standard, or the process of identifying and instantiating reuse of all the expensive assets of architecture. Many do not realize that there is a language for specifying software-intensive distributed processing, and that language is precisely and rigorously defined in RM-ODP for reuse. Those debating definitions for architecture, system, interface, and others can reuse the internationally agreed upon definitions. Finally, with the inclusion of RM-ODP and its relationship to other architecture frameworks, it is expected that many software engineers will benefit from reading this work, since it will be the first time these subjects are discussed in print. How to Use This Book This book is divided into four parts, aimed at increasing levels of detail. Part One provides an overview of the field of software architecture, an RM-ODP primer for managers, and an RM-ODP primer for architects. Part Two provides an in-depth study of RM-ODP and how to use it. Areas of importance and utility from RM-ODP are highlighted. Ambiguity in RM-ODP is highlighted. Warnings in the use of RM-ODP are highlighted. Part Three provides a discussion of the principal architecture patterns of use, arranged by topic. Several of these patterns of use come from emerging work under the initiative of RM-ODP, as well as lessons learned from the practice of RM-ODP. These patterns of reasoning used by the architect are founded on the principals of RM-ODP, as discussed in Part Two of the book. Part Four concludes with relating RM-ODP to other architecture methods. It also provides emerging technologies to further the patterns of reasoning for use in architecting, and a set of architecting heuristics. The information contained in this book is organized in a manner that provides clear insight into the world of distributed software-intensive processing architecture for designers and developers who are familiar with information systems technology, but want to know more about how to build a good architecture. Starting with a tutorial about software architecture, and then a tutorial about the standard for software architecture, the reader need not be an expert in the area of international standards, RM-ODP, software architecture, or specific technologies. The book goes on to address the needs of the variety of readers for which it is intended. Each chapter in the book provides an overview of the subject of the chapter, as well as a summary. For those who wish a broad brush exposure to RM-ODP, the primers of Part One provide this, as well as the overviews and summaries in each chapter of interest. As each chapter progresses, in Parts Two and Three, more and more in-depth detail is provided. The readings of these chapters are aimed at those who wish to know the technical details of a topic. There are two case studies used throughout the book, at various levels of detail. The primary case study is a Hospital enterprise, based upon the author's experience with the medical profession. A secondary case study is an airline reservation system, also based upon the author's experience. These case studies are used to describe the concepts of RM-ODP, and to show how they might be used.