Individualism embraces a wide diversity of meanings and is widely used by those who criticise and by those who praise Western societies and their culture, by historians and literary scholars in search of the emergence of 'the individual', by anthropologists claiming that there are different, culturally shaped conceptions of the individual or 'person', by philosophers debating what form social science explanations should take and by political theorists defending liberal principles. In this classic text, Steven Lukes discusses what 'individualism' has meant in various national traditions and across different provinces of thought, analysing it into its component unit-ideas and doctrines. He further argues that it now plays a malign ideological role, for it has come to evoke a socially-constructed body of ideas whose illusory unity is deployed to suggest that redistributive policies are neither feasible nor desirable and to deny that there are institutional alternatives to the market.
Parties and the American Character in the Jacksonian Era
Author: Lawrence Frederick Kohl
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In the fifty years following the Revolution, America's population nearly quadrupled, its boundaries expanded, industrialization took root in the Northeast, new modes of transportation flourished, state banks proliferated and offered easy credit to eager entrepreneurs, and Americans found themselves in the midst of an accelerating age of individualism, equality, and self-reliance. To the Jacksonian generation, it seemed as if their world had changed practically overnight. The Politics of Individualism looks at the political manifestations of these staggering social transformations. During the 1830s and 1840s, Americans were consumed by politics and party loyalties were fierce. Here, Kohl draws on the political rhetoric found in speeches, newspapers, periodicals, and pamphlets to place the Democrats and the Whigs in a solid social and psychological context. He contends that the political division between these two parties reflected the division between Americans unsettled by the new individualistic social order and those whose character allowed them to strive more confidently within it. Democrats, says Kohl, were more "tradition-directed," bound to others in more personal ways; Whigs, on the other hand, were more "inner-directed" and embraced the impersonal, self-interested relationships of a market society. By examining this fascinating dialogue of parties, Kohl brings us bright new insight into the politics and people of Jacksonian America.
Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-59) has long been recognized as a major political and social thinker as well as historian, but his writings also contain a wealth of little-known insights into economic life and its connection to the rest of society. In Tocqueville's Political Economy, Richard Swedberg shows that Tocqueville had a highly original and suggestive approach to economics--one that still has much to teach us today. Through careful readings of Tocqueville's two major books and many of his other writings, Swedberg lays bare Tocqueville's ingenious way of thinking about major economic phenomena. At the center of Democracy in America, Tocqueville produced a magnificent analysis of the emerging entrepreneurial economy that he found during his 1831-32 visit to the United States. More than two decades later, in The Old Regime and the Revolution, Tocqueville made the complementary argument that it was France's blocked economy and society that led to the Revolution of 1789. In between the publication of these great works, Tocqueville also produced many lesser-known writings on such topics as property, consumption, and moral factors in economic life. When examined together, Swedberg argues, these books and other writings constitute an interesting alternative model of economic thinking, as well as a major contribution to political economy that deserves a place in contemporary discussions about the social effects of economics.
3 Practice Tests + Study Plans + Targeted Review & Practice + Online
Author: Kaplan Test Prep
Publisher: Kaplan Publishing
Category: Study Aids
Kaplan's AP U.S. Government & Politics 2021 & 2022 is revised to align with the 2021 AP exam. This edition features pre-chapter assessments to help you review efficiently, lots of practice questions in the book and even more online, 3 full-length practice tests, complete explanations for every question, and a concise review of the most-tested content to quickly build your skills and confidence. "Rapid" and "Comprehensive" content review sections allow you to choose the amount of prep you need for each topic tested. With bite-sized, test-like practice sets, expert strategies, and customizable study plans, our guide fits your schedule whether you need targeted prep or comprehensive review. We’re so confident that AP U.S. Government & Politics offers the guidance you need that we guarantee it: After studying with our online resources and book, you’ll score higher on the exam—or you'll get your money back. To access your online resources, go to kaptest.com/moreonline and follow the directions. You'll need your book handy to complete the process. Personalized Prep. Realistic Practice. 3 full-length practice exams with comprehensive explanations and an online test scoring tool to convert your raw score into a 1–5 scaled score Pre- and post-quizzes in each chapter so you can monitor your progress and study exactly what you need Customizable study plans tailored to your individual goals and prep time Online quizzes for additional practice ·Focused content review on the essential concepts to help you make the most of your study time Test-taking strategies designed specifically for AP U.S. Government & Politics Expert Guidance We know the test—our AP experts make sure our practice questions and study materials are true to the exam We know students—every explanation is written to help you learn, and our tips on the exam structure and question formats will help you avoid surprises on Test Day We invented test prep—Kaplan (kaptest.com) has been helping students for 80 years, and more than 95% of our students get into their top-choice schools
The Making of Modern Liberalism is a deep and wide-ranging exploration of the origins and nature of liberalism from the Enlightenment through its triumphs and setbacks in the twentieth century and beyond. The book is the fruit of the more than four decades during which Alan Ryan, one of the world's leading political thinkers, reflected on the past of the liberal tradition—and worried about its future. This is essential reading for anyone interested in political theory or the history of liberalism.
What is the meaning of individualism in a modern democracy? In this rich and penetrating book, a major political theorist examines the nature of individualism - the concept of self it implies, the ethic it sustains, the personal connectedness it supports, and the politics it requires - and provides a challenging answer. George Kateb argues that democracy is founded on respect for the dignity of individuals as individuals, and that this respect transforms all human relations. He uses the term "democratic individuality" to name some of the psychological, cultural, and spiritual effects of government's guarantee of rights. Democratic individuality, in his view, is a way in which individuals whose rights are protected may dare to live the private lives and to conceive their roles as citizens
Two of the UK's leading economists call for an end to extreme individualism as the engine of prosperity Throughout history, successful societies have created institutions which channel both competition and co-operation to achieve complex goals of general benefit. These institutions make the difference between societies that thrive and those paralyzed by discord, the difference between prosperous and poor economies. Such societies are pluralist but their pluralism is disciplined. Successful societies are also rare and fragile. We could not have built modernity without the exceptional competitive and co-operative instincts of humans, but in recent decades the balance between these instincts has become dangerously skewed: mutuality has been undermined by an extreme individualism which has weakened co-operation and polarized our politics. Collier and Kay show how a reaffirmation of the values of mutuality could refresh and restore politics, business and the environments in which people live. Politics could reverse the moves to extremism and tribalism; businesses could replace the greed that has degraded corporate culture; the communities and decaying places that are home to many could overcome despondency and again be prosperous and purposeful. As the world emerges from an unprecedented crisis we have the chance to examine society afresh and build a politics beyond individualism.