The Physiological Mechanisms of Motivation

Author: D.W. Pfaff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 482

View: 610

To scientists engaged in research on the cellular mechanisms in the mammalian brain, concepts of "motivation" seem to be a logical neces sity, even if they are not fashionable. Immersed in the detailed, time consuming research required to deal with mammalian nerve cells, we usually pay scant attention to the more global brain -behavior questions that have arisen from decades of biological and psychological studies. We felt it was time to confront these issues-namely, how far has neuro biological investigation come in uncovering mechanisms by which moti vational signals influence behavior? At Rockefeller University, we have recently held a course on this subject. We restricted our treatment to those motivational systems most tractable to physiological approaches, and invited scientists skilled in both behavioral issues and physiological techniques to participate. This volume results from that course. The deans and administration at Rockefeller University provided much help in planning the course, and the staff of Springer-Verlag assisted in planning the book. Gabriele Zummer helped organize both the course and the processing of book chapters. They all deserve our thanks. December 1981 Donald W. Pfaff Professor of Neurobiology and Behavior Rockefeller University Contents Part One: Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1 Donald W. Pfaff Motivational Concepts: Definitions and Distinctions . . . . . . . . . . 3 Motivation: A Brief Review of Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Reinforcement, Reward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Incentive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Arousal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Motivation Is a Unitary Behavioral Concept with Multiple Neurophysiological Mechanisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Chapter 2 Alan N.

The Physiological Mechanisms of Motivation

Author: D.W. Pfaff

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 482

View: 986

To scientists engaged in research on the cellular mechanisms in the mammalian brain, concepts of "motivation" seem to be a logical neces sity, even if they are not fashionable. Immersed in the detailed, time consuming research required to deal with mammalian nerve cells, we usually pay scant attention to the more global brain -behavior questions that have arisen from decades of biological and psychological studies. We felt it was time to confront these issues-namely, how far has neuro biological investigation come in uncovering mechanisms by which moti vational signals influence behavior? At Rockefeller University, we have recently held a course on this subject. We restricted our treatment to those motivational systems most tractable to physiological approaches, and invited scientists skilled in both behavioral issues and physiological techniques to participate. This volume results from that course. The deans and administration at Rockefeller University provided much help in planning the course, and the staff of Springer-Verlag assisted in planning the book. Gabriele Zummer helped organize both the course and the processing of book chapters. They all deserve our thanks. December 1981 Donald W. Pfaff Professor of Neurobiology and Behavior Rockefeller University Contents Part One: Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1 Donald W. Pfaff Motivational Concepts: Definitions and Distinctions . . . . . . . . . . 3 Motivation: A Brief Review of Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Reinforcement, Reward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Incentive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Arousal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Motivation Is a Unitary Behavioral Concept with Multiple Neurophysiological Mechanisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Chapter 2 Alan N.

Learning, Motivation, and Their Physiological Mechanisms

Author: Neal E. Miller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Psychology

Page: 502

View: 692

Neal E. Miller's pioneering work in experimental psychology has earned him worldwide respect. This second in a two-volume collection of his work brings together forty-three of Miller's most important and representative essays on learning, motivation, and their physiological mechanisms. They were selected on the basis of their current relevance and their historical significance at the time they were published. In order to emphasize the main themes, essays on a given topic have been grouped together.Learning, Motivation, and Their Physiological Mechanisms begins when the author first discovered the thrill of designing and executing experiments to get clear-cut answers concerning the behavior of children and of rats. The first study was one of the earliest ones on the behavioral effects of the recently synthesized male hormone, testosterone. The second was one of the earliest studies demonstrating the value of using a variety of behavioral techniques to investigate the motivational effects of a physiological intervention. The next studies investigated the satisfying and rewarding effects of food or water in the stomach versus in the mouth and the thirst-inducing and reducing effects of hyper- and hypotonic solutions, respectively, injected into the brain. The last study describes a technique devised for extending the analysis of the mechanism of hunger to the effects of humoral factors in the blood.The study is completed with an examination of trial-and-error learning that was motivated by direct electrical stimulation of the brain and rewarded by the termination of such stimulation. Other studies show that the stimulation via such electrodes not only elicits eating, but also has the principal motivational characteristics of normal hunger. The conclusion deals with a series of experiments that overthrows strong traditional beliefs by proving that glandular and visceral responses mediated by the autonomic nervous system are subject to instrumental learning, which can be

Learning, Motivation, and Their Physiological Mechanisms

Author: Neal E. Miller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 502

View: 116

Neal E. Miller's pioneering work in experimental psychology has earned him worldwide respect. This second in a two-volume collection of his work brings together forty-three of Miller's most important and representative essays on learning, motivation, and their physiological mechanisms. They were selected on the basis of their current relevance and their historical significance at the time they were published. In order to emphasize the main themes, essays on a given topic have been grouped together.Learning, Motivation, and Their Physiological Mechanisms begins when the author first discovered the thrill of designing and executing experiments to get clear-cut answers concerning the behavior of children and of rats. The first study was one of the earliest ones on the behavioral effects of the recently synthesized male hormone, testosterone. The second was one of the earliest studies demonstrating the value of using a variety of behavioral techniques to investigate the motivational effects of a physiological intervention. The next studies investigated the satisfying and rewarding effects of food or water in the stomach versus in the mouth and the thirst-inducing and reducing effects of hyper- and hypotonic solutions, respectively, injected into the brain. The last study describes a technique devised for extending the analysis of the mechanism of hunger to the effects of humoral factors in the blood.The study is completed with an examination of trial-and-error learning that was motivated by direct electrical stimulation of the brain and rewarded by the termination of such stimulation. Other studies show that the stimulation via such electrodes not only elicits eating, but also has the principal motivational characteristics of normal hunger. The conclusion deals with a series of experiments that overthrows strong traditional beliefs by proving that glandular and visceral responses mediated by the autonomic nervous system are subject to instrumental learning, which can be made quite specific.

Neal E. Elgar

Selected Papers on Learning Motivation and Their Physiological Mechanisms

Author: Neal Elgar Miller

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Learning, Psychology of

Page:

View: 246

Mechanisms of Motivation

Author: Georg Schulze

Publisher: Trafford Publishing

ISBN:

Category: Education

Page: 153

View: 250

We teach aspects of the psychology of motivated behaviors using the "problem-based" and "structured activity-learning" methods that are rapidly gaining credence as effective instructional approaches, especially in teaching medicine-related courses. Our approach with this text attempts to: provide students with structured challenges; foster independent thought by encouraging students to solve the challenges without external aid; allow students to attempt to solve the challenges as they see fit; emphasize that the number of different approaches made in solution of the posed challenges is often far more important than the speed or accuracy with which the solution is arrived at; and provide ample encouragement. We do not spoon-feed students, but expect them to fend for themselves. This text is terse; some of the questions posed are ambiguous; some information may be missing; there is a proscription against seeking aid except in discourse with fellow students; there is a lack of supplemental explanations; there are no summaries or teaching objectives in the text; rather the student is asked to supply and deduce these, respectively...In short, we are standing current accepted practice on its head. It works. In fact, many students find the experience, though very demanding, also liberating, energizing and empowering. Their intellectual capabilities are respected and their problem-solving abilities developed. This is what they expected higher education to be about. ..."he encourages his students to guide their own thinking rather than just rote memorization." Anonymous (1997) "It was challenging to be in a psyc course where critical thinking, integration of topics and understanding, as opposed to rote memorization, were emphasized." Anonymous (1997) "Emphasis on individual thought and communication w[ith] classmates led to a good (and probably long-lasting) understanding of the material. In addition, the classroom discussion was interactive and led to a high degree of interest and enjoyment." Anonymous (1999) "I really appreciated the problem-based learning and group work format of the course, as well as the interesting course material. This course has contributed considerably to my understanding of psychology..." Anonymous (1999) "This is the end of my fourth year, and I have never spent so much effort on one course; nor have I enjoyed one more." Anonymous (2002)

The Psychobiology of Human Motivation

Author: Hugh Wagner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Psychology

Page: 208

View: 893

Why is one person motivated to create a business empire whilst another is inspired to produce a beautiful work of art? Why do some people prefer a quiet life? The Psychobiology of Human Motivation explores what directs our behaviour, from basic physiological needs like hunger and thirst to more complex aspects of social behaviour like altruism. Hugh Wagner explores the limits of biological explanations and shows how humans can influence `basic' physiological drives in order to adapt to a complex social environment.

Motivation and Emotion

Evolutionary, Physiological, Developmental, and Social Perspectives

Author: Denys DeCatanzaro

Publisher: Pearson College Division

ISBN:

Category: Psychology

Page: 352

View: 909

This unique book provides a comprehensive study of emotion within a modern evolutionary perspective. Motivation and emotion are presented within an integrated approach that assumes biological and psychological causes, including evolution, neuroscience, endocrinology, human development, and culture. Motivation and Emotion Presents a wealth of modern evidence integrating neuroscience and endocrinology into the study of motivation and emotion. The book provides a variety of photographs of facial expressions showing emotions from people of diverse cultures as well as nonhuman primates. It also discusses modern interactive explanations for specific behaviors, rather than dull, historical perspectives. For example, human affect is explained as a response to social events and stress, resulting in psychophysiological consequences. An essential reference for any professional in sociology or psychology.

Motivation and Emotion

Author: Phil Gorman

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN:

Category: Psychology

Page: 165

View: 897

Explores the relationship between the brain and our motivation to do things, analysing psychological, physiological and combined approaches.

Readings in Physiological Psychology: Motivation

Author: Charles G. Gross

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Memory

Page: 323

View: 642

Motivation has been a central problem of psychology precisely because "motivational" phenomena testify to a limitation of the principle of stimulus control of behavior. In the case of reflexes, given the proper stimulus, the response is highly predictable and an S-R paradigm is applicable. In the case of hunger, sex, sleep, emotion, reinforcement, curiosity, etc., the paradigm S-O-R seems more appropriate. The response to a given external stimulus depends not only upon that stimulus but also upon the internal state of the organism. The behaviors that we call "motivated" are frequently described as "goal-directed" and "purposive." They do not seem to happen either at random or in an automatic reflexive fashion but appear to be guided by their consequences related to some goal and carried out in such a manner as to satisfy the present or future needs of the individual or the species. The water-deprived animal is highly responsive to water; the sexual receptivity of the female is linked closely to her reproductive cycle; food deprivation and food reward transform the behavior of a rat in the maze, etc. In attempting to account for such phenomena, psychologists have frequently postulated a variety of hypothetical internal states (e.g. "drive," "motive," "arousal") whose conceptual status was often obscure and whose relation to behavior was never entirely clear. The studies reprinted in this volume represent a different approach to the problem of motivation. They involve the direct manipulation and/or measurement of physiological variables. By combining these techniques with detailed analyses of behavior, investigators have begun to clarify the mechanisms underlying hunger, sleep, reproductive behavior, emotion, and reinforcement. It has become clear that these processes are controlled by a number of causal factors: genetic characteristics, neural and hormonal processes, stimuli, and experience. Under natural conditions, no single factor operates independently. However, by the use of appropriate experimental techniques, it is possible to isolate each of these factors and clarify its role in the control of behavior. Such studies have demonstrated that the appearance of "purposiveness" characteristic of "motivated" behavior does not involve purpose or foresight on the part of the animal but emerges out of the interaction of a number of causal factors.

Human Motivation

Physiological, Behavioral, and Social Approaches

Author: Russell G. Geen

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon

ISBN:

Category: Motivation (Psychology).

Page: 516

View: 248

Behavioral Neuroscience of Motivation

Author: Eleanor H. Simpson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 587

View: 579

This volume covers the current status of research in the neurobiology of motivated behaviors in humans and other animals in healthy condition. This includes consideration of the psychological processes that drive motivated behavior and the anatomical, electrophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms which drive these processes and regulate behavioural output. The volume also includes chapters on pathological disturbances in motivation including apathy, or motivational deficit as well as addictions, the pathological misdirection of motivated behavior. As with the chapters on healthy motivational processes, the chapters on disease provide a comprehensive up to date review of the neurobiological abnormalities that underlie motivation, as determined by studies of patient populations as well as animal models of disease. The book closes with a section on recent developments in treatments for motivational disorders.

The Psychobiology of Human Motivation

Author: Hugh Wagner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Psychology

Page: 132

View: 236

This is a classic edition of Hugh Wagner’s influential overview of the biopsychological underpinnings of human motivation. It includes a new foreword written by Michael Richter who reflects on Wagner’s 20 years of teaching, writing and research in the field of biopsychology and promises an engaging, succinct and accessible introductory text that remains relevant and useful to students today. The Psychobiology of Human Motivation explores what directs our behaviour, from basic physiological needs like hunger and thirst to more complex aspects of social behaviour like altruism. Wagner explores the limits of biological explanations and shows how humans can influence ‘basic’ physiological drives in order to adapt to a complex social environment. An accessible, engaging resource strengthened by many applied examples, Wagner’s text continues to be integral reading for undergraduate students seeking a solid introduction to the psychology of human motivation across the social and behavioural sciences.

Mechanisms of Learning and Motivation

A Memorial Volume To Jerzy Konorski

Author: A. Dickinson

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN:

Category: Psychology

Page: 460

View: 518

First published in 1979. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Motivation

A Biobehavioral Analysis of Consummatory Activities

Author: Roderick Wong

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Motivation (Psychology).

Page: 326

View: 154

The Springs of Human Action

A Psychological Study of the Sources, Mechanism, and Principles of Motivation in Human Behavior

Author: Mehran Kafafian Thomson

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Behaviorism (Psychology)

Page: 501

View: 448

"The study of human behavior is most fascinating. It is becoming increasingly popular every day. But more significant still is the fact that the psychological approach to the perplexing problems of life is being earnestly employed. This situation creates an obligation on the part of psychologists for more scientific data. All sciences dealing with human behavior, we are often told, must be based on a thorough knowledge of human nature--original tendencies and acquired traits, innate and learned likes and dislikes, psychophysical capacities and resources, and the intricately complex reactions to the environment in actual everyday life. If this be true, it is difficult to see how we can afford to ignore drives and motives. And yet the field of motivation has been woefully neglected. There is an imperative need for a scientific study to account for the springs of human action in a comprehensive way. The present study is an attempt to meet this fundamental need"--Preface. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).