reaching the goal by giving up the attempt to reach it
Author: Marvin C. Shaw
Publisher: Scholars Pr
This book examines the paradox of intention, the simple idea that we may reach a goal by giving up the attempt to reach it or, conversely, that we may be prevented from reaching a goal by our intentional efforts to achieve it. The nature of this paradox is explored through an examination oftexts from ancient and existential philosophy, psychotherapy, and the sacred texts of Buddhism, Christianity, and Taoism. Shaw then subjects the paradox to systematic study by pursuing a series of questions arising from it. A clearly written and accessible study, The Paradox of Intention adds an intriguing chapter to both comparative ethics and the cross-cultural study of the philosophy of religion.
This book suggests answers, or at least presents conceptual tools for finding answers, to questions such as: What is an action, and what is an omission? Can actions be counted? What is the role of intention for the identification of actions? The author offers an original approach to the analysis of action. Written in a very accessible style, the book is of interest to lawyers, legal scientists and philosophers.
Business leaders are expected to be 'in control' of the situation in which their businesses find themselves. But how can organizational leaders and managers control matters entirely out of their hands; such as the next action a competitor takes, or the next law a government may pass? In this book, Philip Streatfield reflects on his own experience as a manager to explore the question: who, or what is 'in control' in an organization? Adopting the perspective of complex responsive processes developed in the first two volumes of this series, the author takes self-organization and emergence as central themes in thinking about life in organizations. He focuses on the tension between spontaneously forming patterns of conversation and intentional actions arguing that the order of organizations emerges through a combination of collective interaction and individual intentions. The argument is developed by considering the day-to-day experiences of life in a large pharmaceutical organization, SmithKline Beecham. In today's organization, managers find that they have to live with the paradox of being 'in control' and 'not in control' simultaneously. It is this capacity to live with paradox, and to continue to participate creatively in spite of 'not being in control', that constitutes effective management.
Why Americans Like Unions More Than Canadians Do, But Join Much Less
Author: Seymour Martin Lipset
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Category: Political Science
The authors examine the reluctance of Americans to join unions, even though they greatly approve of the institution, comparing the experience of Canada, where union numbers are higher but the approval rating much lower. They uncover deep-seated differences in identity & outlook between the two countries.
Levinas and an Alternative Paradigm for Psychology
Author: George Kunz
Publisher: SUNY Press
Offers an alternative paradigm for psychology, one that reflects Levinas's criticism of a self-centered notion of identity. Reveals the secret of an "authentic" altruism through a phenomenology of both power and weakness, and of the paradoxes of the weakness of power and the power of weakness.
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) refers to intentionally self-inflicted injuries, and is mainly explained by abuse or neglect, severe psychopathy or at least a trait of a mental disorder. Most functions of DSH serve intrapersonal motives but interpersonal reasons are also found. These range from seeking for attention, pity and sympathy, to benefits like care, help or avoidance of unpleasant tasks or persons. To the latter belongs the deterrence of assaulters, a benefit, especially desirable for prisoners due to the hostile and brutal environment of prisons. This book scrutinizes two hypotheses of avoidance of attacks in prisons by the use of episodes of DSH as costly signals building upon the signaling theory developed in economics and biology. The first hypothesis is that DSH is an honest signal of fearlessness intended to repel other inmates from attacking. The second deals with the avoidance of assaulters by signaling madness via DSH to achieve relocation into an asylum. The underlying motive in this case is the need of protection, and thus, DSH serves as a cry for help to prison authorities. All necessary requirements of both hypotheses are examined, provided with evidence from existing research and analyzed with the help of mathematical models.
The relationship between an author's and an audience's intentions is complex but need not preclude mutual engagement. This philosophical investigation challenges existing literary and rhetorical perspectives on intention and offers a new framework for understanding the negotiation of meaning. It describes how an audience's intentions affect their interpretations, shows how audiences negotiate meaning when faced with a writer's undecipherable intentions, and defines the scope of understanding within rhetorical situations. Introducing a concept of intention into literary analysis that supersedes existing rhetorical theory, Arabella Lyon shows how the rhetorics of I. A. Richards, Wayne Booth, and Stanley Fish, as well as the hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer, fail to account for the complex interactions of author and audience. Using Kenneth Burke's concepts of form, motive, and purpose, she builds a more complex notion of intention than those usually found in literary studies, then employs her theory to describe how philosophers read Wittgenstein's narratives, metaphors, and reversals in argument. Lyon argues that our differences in intention prevent consistency in interpretations but do not stop our discussions, deliberations, and actions. She seeks to acknowledge difference and the communicative problems it creates while demonstrating that difference is normal and does not end our engagement with each other. Intentions combines recent work in philosophy, literary criticism, hermeneutics, and rhetoric in a highly imaginative way to construct a theory of intention for a postmodern rhetoric. It recovers and renovates central concepts in rhetorical theory—not only intention but also deliberation, politics, and judgment.
Determining why, when, and to whom people feel compelled to be generous affords invaluable insight into positive and problematic ways of life. Organ donation, volunteering, and the funding of charities can all be illuminated by sociological and psychological perspectives on how American adults conceive of and demonstrate generosity. Focusing not only on financial giving but on the many diverse forms generosity can take, Christian Smith and Hilary Davidson show the deep impact-usually good, sometimes destructive-that giving has on individuals. The Paradox of Generosity is the first study to make use of the cutting-edge empirical data collected in Smith's groundbreaking, multidisciplinary, five-year Science of Generosity Initiative. It draws on an extensive survey of 2,000 Americans, more than sixty in-depth interviews with individuals across twelve states, and analysis of over 1,000 photographs and other visual materials. This wealth of evidence reveals a consistent link between demonstrating generosity and leading a better life: more generous people are happier, suffer fewer illnesses and injuries, live with a greater sense of purpose, and experience less depression. Smith and Davidson also show, however, that to achieve a better life a person must practice generosity regularly-random acts of kindness are not enough. Offering a wide range of vividly illustrative case studies, this volume will be a crucial resource for anyone seeking to understand the true impact and meaning of generosity.
Nietzsche's New Nobility and the Eternal Recurrence in Beyond Good and Evil
Author: Harvey J. Lomax
Publisher: Lexington Books
Lomax pays particular attention to the problematic concept of nobility, which concerned Nietzsche during his later years. This study provides a close textual analysis and a thoughtful reconceptualization ofBeyond Good and Evil.