Covering the basics of neuroscience, including a chapter on the vocabulary of the nervous system (a great brush-up even for those who have some prior knowledge of neuroscience), this excellent reference eases the student through more difficult topics such as reflexes, eye-hand coordination, and neural control of running and walking. Each chapter begins with an outline, and a comprehensive glossary rounds out the book. More than 50 original line drawings illustrate key concepts. * Presents difficult information on neuroscience in an easy-to-understand manner. * Explains the major organizational subdivisions of the central nervous system briefly, with an emphasis on structures and structural relationships that impact motor control. * Presents typical spinal cord and brainstem reflexes involved in motor control and discusses the methods for using these reflexes to influence strength gains and muscle flexibility. * Includes the most current research on the neural control of hand-eye coordination, discussed in relation to its importance to rehabilitation medicine and childrens' physical education. * Chapter on the neural control of human locomotion integrates concepts in previous chapters to show the harmony of neural interaction that is needed to complete any motor act. * Includes the latest research (by the author) showing that humans can consciously alter reflex activity and the impact of these findings on athletic performance, recovery from injury, and motor learning. * Concepts are illustrated with anecdotes and examples making difficult information less intimidating and easier to grasp. * Includes topics like hand-eye coordination and human locomotion, applying neuroscience to everyday activities and making highly theoretical information useful. * More than 50 original line drawings illustrate key concepts. * Chapter outlines give students an overview of the information to be presented. * Comprehensive glossary provides an easy review of difficult terminology.
The Daubert trilogy of U.S. Supreme Court cases has established that scientific expert testimony must be based on science grounded in empirical research. As such, greater scrutiny is being placed on questioned document examination generally, and handwriting comparison in particular. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, The Neuroscience of Handwriting: Applications in Forensic Document Examination examines the essential neuroscientific principles underlying normal and pathological hand motor control and handwriting. Topics discussed include: Fundamental principles in the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of hand motor control and their application to research in handwriting The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and motor characteristics of neurogenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, essential tremor, and motor neuron disease and their effects on handwriting Psychotropic medications prescribed for depression, bipolar disorder, and psychosis; their mechanisms of action; and their effect on motor behavior and handwriting The impact of substance abuse on handwriting An overview of the aging process and its effects on motor control and handwriting The kinematic approach and new findings on the kinematic analyses of genuine, disguised, and forged signatures The authors’ laboratory research on authentic and forged signatures An essential resource for professionals and researchers in the forensic documentation examination and legal communities, this volume provides a window on the scientific process of signature and handwriting authentication, integrating the extensive research on neural processes and exploring how disease, medication, and advanced age alter these processes.
Neuromechanics of Human Movement, Fifth Edition, draws on the disciplines of neurophysiology and physics to explore how the nervous system controls the actions of muscles to produce human motion. This contemporary approach is much different from the traditional approach, which focuses solely on mechanics and does not consider the role of the sensorimotor system in the control of human movement. Authored by Roger Enoka, a widely recognized and esteemed scholar in neuromechanics, this influential text is an essential resource in biomechanics, motor learning, and applied physiology, making complex information accessible to students.
The ability to selectively attend to events in the world around us is a core cognitive function. It prevents distraction and enables humans and animals to dedicate perceptual, cognitive, and motor resources to deal with the most pressing current challenges. When attention systems of the brain are damaged by disease or trauma, the impact for the individual and society can be significant, and therefore, understanding the neural mechanisms of attention is a central goal in neuroscience. In addition, understanding how attention mechanisms operate is critical for advancing the important mission of developing the most effective training regimes for a wide range of duties, as well as for creating new methods for educating the world's growing population. This text addresses the basic neuroscience of how the brain controls the focus of attention, and how this focused attention influences sensory and motor processes. This volume will provide the reader with a selection of the models, mechanisms and findings in the neuroscience of attentional control and selection from leading authorities working in human and animal models, and incorporating a array of neuroscience methods from single neuron recordings to functional brain imaging, and advanced modeling. The book begins with contributions that describe attentional selection, relying largely on evidence from attention in vision. Subsequent chapters address attentional control mechanisms in cortical and subcortical brain networks. Finally, the role of attention in action, short-term memory, and emotion are discussed.
"Neuromechanics of Human Movement, Fourth Edition," provides a scientific foundation to the study of human movement by exploring how the nervous system controls the actions of muscles to produce human motion in relation to biomechanical principles.
New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, Number 110
Author: Sandra Johnson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This timely volume examines links between the emerging neurobiological research on adult learning and the adult educators' practice. Now that it is possible to trace the pathways of the brain involved in various learning tasks, we can also explore which learning environments are likely to be most effective. Topics explored in The Neuroscience of Adult Learning include: basic brain architecture and "executive" functions of the brain how learning can "repair" the effects of psychological trauma on the brain effects of stress and emotions on learning the centrality of experience to learning and construction of knowledge the mentor-learner relationship intersections between best practices in adult learning and current neurobiological discoveries Volume contributors include neurobiologists, educators, and clinical psychologists who have illuminated connections between how the brain functions and how to enhance learning. Although the immediate goal of this volume is to expand the discourse on adult teaching and learning practices, the overarching goal is to encourage adult learners toward more complex ways of knowing. This is the 110th volume of New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, a quarterly publication published by Jossey-Bass.
The burgeoning field of social neuroscience has begun to illuminate the complex biological bases of human social cognitive abilities. However, in spite of being based on the premise of investigating the neural bases of interacting minds, the majority of studies have focused on studying brains in isolation using paradigms that investigate offline social cognition, i.e. social cognition from a detached observer's point of view, asking study participants to read out the mental states of others without being engaged in interaction with them. Consequently, the neural correlates of real-time social interaction have remained elusive and may —paradoxically— represent the 'dark matter' of social neuroscience. More recently, a growing number of researchers have begun to study online social cognition, i.e. social cognition from a participant's point of view, based on the assumption that there is something fundamentally different when we are actively engaged with others in real-time social interaction as compared to when we merely observe them. Whereas, for offline social cognition, interaction and feedback are merely a way of gathering data about the other person that feeds into processing algorithms 'inside’ the agent, it has been proposed that in online social cognition the knowledge of the other —at least in part— resides in the interaction dynamics ‘between’ the agents. Furthermore being a participant in an ongoing interaction may entail a commitment toward being responsive created by important differences in the motivational foundations of online and offline social cognition. In order to promote the development of the neuroscientific investigation of online social cognition, this Frontiers Research Topic aims at bringing together contributions from researchers in social neuroscience and related fields, whose work involves the study of at least two individuals and sometimes two brains, rather than single individuals and brains responding to a social context. Specifically, this Research Topic will adopt an interdisciplinary perspective on what it is that separates online from offline social cognition and the putative differences in the recruitment of underlying processes and mechanisms. Here, an important focal point will be to address the various roles of social interaction in contributing to and —at times— constituting our awareness of other minds. For this Research Topic, we, therefore, solicit reviews, original research articles, opinion and method papers, which address the investigation of social interaction and go beyond traditional concepts and ways of experimentation in doing so. While focusing on work in the neurosciences, this Research Topic also welcomes contributions in the form of behavioral studies, psychophysiological investigations, methodological innovations, computational approaches, developmental and patient studies. By focusing on cutting-edge research in social neuroscience and related fields, this Frontiers Research Topic will create new insights concerning the neurobiology of social interaction and holds the promise of helping social neuroscience to really go social.
The evolution of the human species has always been closely tied to the relationship between biology and culture, and the human condition is rooted in this fascinating intersection. Sport, games, and competition serve as a nexus for humanity's innate fixation on movement and social activity, and these activities have served throughout history to encourage the proliferation of human culture for any number of exclusive or inclusive motivations: money, fame, health, spirituality, or social and cultural solidarity. The study of anthropology, as presented in Anthropology of Sport and Human Movement, provides a scope that offers a critical and discerning perspective on the complex calculus involving human biological and cultural variation that produces human movement and performance. Each chapter of this compelling collection resonates with the theme of a tightly woven relationship of biology and culture, of evolutionary implications and contemporary biological and cultural expression.
A single volume of 85 articles, the Handbook of the Neurobiology of Aging is an authoritative selection of relevant chapters from the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, the most comprehensive source of neuroscience information assembled to date (AP Oct 2008). The study of neural aging is a central topic in neuroscience, neuropsychology and gerontology. Some well-known age-related neurological diseases include Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, but even more common are problems of aging which are not due to disease but to more subtle impairments in neurobiological systems, including impairments in vision, memory loss, muscle weakening, and loss of reproductive functions, changes in body weight, and sleeplessness. As the average age of our society increases, diseases of aging become more common and conditions associated with aging need more attention by doctors and researchers. This book offers an overview of topics related to neurobiological impairments which are related to the aging brain and nervous system. Coverage ranges from animal models to human imaging, fundamentals of age-related neural changes and pathological neurodegeneration, and offers an overview of structural and functional changes at the molecular, systems, and cognitive levels. Key pathologies such as memory disorders, Alzheimer's, dementia, Down syndrome, Parkinson's, and stroke are discussed, as are cutting edge interventions such as cell replacement therapy and deep brain stimulation. There is no other current single-volume reference with such a comprehensive coverage and depth. Authors selected are the internationally renowned experts for the particular topics on which they write, and the volume is richly illustrated with over 100 color figures. A collection of articles reviewing our fundamental knowledge of neural aging, the book provides an essential, affordable reference for scientists in all areas of Neuroscience, Neuropsychology and Gerontology. * The most comprehensive source of up-to-date data on the neurobiology of aging, review articles cover: normal, sensory and cognitive aging; neuroendocrine, structural and molecular factors; and fully address both patholgy and intervention * Chapters represent an authoritative selection of relevant material from the most comprehensive source of information about neuroscience ever assembled, (Encyclopedia of Neuroscience), synthesizing information otherwise dispersed across a number of journal articles and book chapters, and saving researchers the time consuming process of finding and integrating this information themselves * Offering outstanding scholarship, each chapter is written by an expert in the topic area and over 20% of chapters feature international contributors, (representing 11 countries) * Provides more fully vetted expert knowledge than any existing work with broad appeal for the US, UK and Europe, accurately crediting the contributions to research in those regions * Fully explores various pathologies associated with the aging brain (Alzheimer's, dementia, Parkinson's, memory disorders, stroke, Down's syndrome, etc.) * Coverage of disorders and key interventions makes the volume relevant to clinicians as well as researchers * Heavily illustrated with over 100 color figures
Dynamic interceptive actions are those actions for which the body, or an implement, must be moved into the right place at the right time in order to accomplish a task. These actions are particularly prevalent in sport, for example reaching to catch a ball or running towards a target to make a tackle. This book is the first to offer a comprehensive review of existing theoretical research on dynamic interceptive actions, as well as close examination of specific, practical applications. The book includes material on: * catching * wielding tennis rackets * putting in golf * controlling and kicking a soccer ball. It is essential reading for anybody with a close interest in motor learning and control or skill acquisition, and will be of interest to students of sport psychology, movement science and coaching science.