Formulating and Asking Questions for Successful Outcomes
Author: Gerry O'Sullivan
Publisher: New Society Publishers
Learn how to formulate and ask penetrating, paradigm-shifting questions for successful outcomes in any conflict. Knowing how to formulate and ask incisive questions to get to the core of a conflict, challenge entrenched thinking, and shift perspectives are the main challenge for mediators and the key to successful conflict resolution. The Mediator’s Toolkit employs the author’s powerful “S Questions Model,” to provide readers with the skills and tools to develop and ask strategic questions that result in successful outcomes in any context. The S Questions Model toolkit dives into four dimensions of successful questions for mediation: the subject matter dimension, the structure dimension, the information seeking dimension, and the shifting thinking dimension. The toolkit clearly explains: The theory behind each question type, including exploration of relevant neuroscience and psychology The purpose of different types of questions How the questions work When to use different types of questions How to build and apply questions to mediation in a non-threatening way This essential practical guide will radically sharpen, focus, and improve the questioning skills of qualified mediators, students, lecturers, trainers, and those using questions to challenge and effect change, in any context.
This open access book presents twelve unique studies on mediation from researchers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. Each study highlights important aspects of mediation, including the role of children in family mediation, the evolution and ambivalent application of restorative justice in the Nordic countries, the confusion of roles in court-connected mediation, and the challenges in dispute systems. Over the past 20-30 years, mediation has gained in popularity in many countries around the world and is often heralded as a suitable and cost-effective mode of conflict resolution. However, as the studies in this volumes show, mediation also has a number of potential drawbacks. Parties’ self-determination may be jeopardized, affected third parties are involved in an inadequate way, and the legal regulations may be flawed. The publication can inspire research, help professionals and policymakers in the field and be used as a textbook.
Mediation has become a common technique for terminating violent conflicts both within and between states; while mediation has a strong record in reducing hostilities, it is not without its own problems. In The Mediation Dilemma, Kyle Beardsley highlights its long-term limitations. The result of this oft-superficial approach to peacemaking, immediate and reassuring as it may be, is often a fragile peace. With the intervention of a third-party mediator, warring parties may formally agree to concessions that are insupportable in the long term and soon enough find themselves at odds again. Beardsley examines his argument empirically using two data sets and traces it through several historical cases: Henry Kissinger’s and Jimmy Carter’s initiatives in the Middle East, 1973–1979; Theodore Roosevelt’s 1905 mediation in the Russo-Japanese War; and Carter’s attempt to mediate in the 1994 North Korean nuclear crisis. He also draws upon the lessons of the 1993 Arusha Accords, the 1993 Oslo Accords, Haiti in 1994, the 2002 Ceasefire Agreement in Sri Lanka, and the 2005 Memorandum of Understanding in Aceh. Beardsley concludes that a reliance on mediation risks a greater chance of conflict relapse in the future, whereas the rejection of mediation risks ongoing bloodshed as war continues. The trade-off between mediation’s short-term and long-term effects is stark when the third-party mediator adopts heavy-handed forms of leverage, and, Beardsley finds, multiple mediators and intergovernmental organizations also do relatively poorly in securing long-term peace. He finds that mediation has the greatest opportunity to foster both short-term and long-term peace when a single third party mediates among belligerents that can afford to wait for a self-enforcing arrangement to be reached.
Early intervention in a dispute, before the disagreement escalates, is often the most effective form of mediation. Consequently, the line manager or supervisor responsible for those individuals at loggerheads is frequently the best person to spot a growing problem and then to intervene. The Mediation Pocketbook will help such managers to understand what creates and sustains conflict and describes a step-by-step approach for dealing with it. The book sets out the skills that are required and what tools and techniques are available and how they can be deployed to achieve positive outcomes. The ideas and methods featured will also be helpful to HR specialists and those people with training in the subject, for when a problem demands formal mediation procedures. Individuals facing conflict and the need to persuade others to see their point of view will also benefit from the practical advice. Conflict in the workplace causes dissatisfaction and demotivation which in turn leads to greater absenteeism and affects performance. Resolving disputes constructively, rather than simply persuading people to 'agree to differ', will impact positively throughout the organisation.
Context Mediation is a field of research that is concerned with the interchange of information across different environments, which provides a vehicle to bridge semantic gaps among disparate entities. Knowledge Discovery is concerned with the extraction of actionable information from large databases. A challenge that has received relatively little attention is knowledge discovery in a highly disparate environment, that is multiple heterogeneous data sources, multiple domain knowledge sources and multiple knowledge patterns. This thesis tackles the problem of semantic interoperability among data, domain knowledge and knowledge patterns in a knowledge discovery process using context mediation. All presented techniques, methods and models are applied in real-world scenarios, covering disciplines from a wide range of industry, namely web mining and marketing, manufacturing, meteorology and internationalisation. When feasible, industry standards were utilised, for instance ODMG, PMML and KQML. The carried out research has resulted in almost fifty international publications, including the co-authorship of a book, a journal editorship and one conference best paper award.
The goal of this handbook is to enhance the practice of mediation by showing how lessons from individual mediators can be identified and made available both to their home organization (e.g., a foreign ministry, intergovernmental organization, or nongovernmental organization) and to a wider practitioner audience. More particularly, the handbook gives guidance to staff debriefing mediators who are or have been directly involved in peace negotiations. The focus here is not on self-assessments by the mediators themselves, nor on evaluations of the mediator's performance by external donors, nor on political or psychological debriefing. Instead, this handbook examines methodological debriefing: that is, interviews conducted with the goal of learning lessons about the mediation method from the experience of a specific mediator that are useful for future mediation processes. Methodological debriefing is typically conducted by individuals who have not been directly involved in the mediator's work and who do not seek to judge it but who want to learn the mediator's perspective on what was done and why it was done. Ideally, the mediator will also benefit from the interview by discovering something new through the questions posed, by having the opportunity to recount a challenging experience, or at least by having her or his experiences documented in a structured and objective manner.
With mediations throwing up so many different scenarios and no one mediation following the same structure as another, how do mediators know which questions to ask and when?Innovative in its approach The Mediator's Toolbox for Developing and Asking Questions provides mediators with a new model that enables them to manage the relationship between the disputing parties by 'drilling' down into their issues and identifying their needs using effective questioning thereby ensuring that the most successful outcome is achieved at the mediation.Developed by the author, the 'S Questions Model' incorporates an extensive range of question types that can be utilised by a mediator before and during a mediation. It has four stages:S1: Subject Matter Dimension of QuestionsS2: Structure Dimension of QuestionsS3: Seeking Information Dimension QuestionsS4: Shift Thinking Dimension of QuestionsWhilst there are several mediation books that include some information about the subject content of questions (S1) and the structure of a question (S2), no books have been written about the use of Clean Language questions as a tool in mediation (S3) or the model or framework that identifies and describes the types of questions that will specifically and strategically shift the thinking and perspectives of parties in mediation (S4). These are completely unique to The Mediator's Toolbox for Developing and Asking Questions.Split into two parts with Part I looking at the theoretical context for the 'S Questions Model' and its applicability to mediation and Part II illustrating how the 'S Questions Model' works in practice in mediations, The Mediator's Toolbox for Developing and Asking Questions shows mediators (whether experienced or in training) how to develop and ask powerful questions that shift the perspective and thinking of parties in conflict. It shows them how to work with integrity in a highly emotional mediation context. It emphasises that mediators will be able to get to the core of a party's conflict by using the emotions displayed by parties to reach their underlying interests, as this is where the most effective and sustainable solutions lie.The theory behind the question types, why they are asked, how they work, when they are used, and how they are built and applied to mediation are illustrated.
"Managing the Mediation Process" offers an overview of the process of mediating interstate and intrastate conflicts. Each of its six chapters covers a different step in the process, identifying what needs to be done at that step and how best to accomplish it: Assess the Conflict Ensure Mediator Readiness Ensure Conflict Ripeness Conduct Track-I Mediation Encourage Track-II Dialogue Construct a Peace AgreementConsolidating the practical wisdom of managing a mediation process into an easily digestible format, this handbook is designed to help mediators identify areas where they may need more research or preparation, as well as options and strategies relevant to the particular case on which they are working. Examples from past mediation efforts are provided."Managing the Mediation Process " is the first of six handbooks in The Peacemaker s Toolkit series and deals largely with Track-I efforts. Each handbook in the series addresses a particular facet of the work of mediating violent conflicts, including such topics as negotiating with terrorists, managing public information, the impact of international tribunals on a peace process, property restitution, constitution making, assessing and enhancing ripeness, debriefing a mediation effort, and Track II peacemaking among others. "
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems : CHI 2000, the Future is Here
Author: Thea Turner
Contributions to the annual SIGCHI Proceedings cover the full spectrum of computer-human interaction -- from collaborative work to user interface management, hypertext and hypermedia systems, simulated neural networks, educational software engineering, usability engineering and testing, and much more! ACM SIGCHI provides an international, interdisciplinary forum for the exchange of ideas about the field of human-computer interaction (HCI).