Education, Professionalism, and the Officer Corps of the United States Army, 1881-1918
Author: Timothy K. Nenninger
The period from the Indian wars to WWI saw the evolution of the U.S. Army from a 25,000 man frontier constabulary to a modern professionally led two million man force fighting in a coalition war in Europe. This study describes the context within which the Leavenworth schools--begun in 1881--evolved.
Formally titled "General of the Army," the five-star general is the highest possible rank awarded in the U.S. Army in modern times and has been awarded to only five men in the nation's history: George C. Marshall, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Henry H. Arnold, and Omar N. Bradley. In addition to their rank, these distinguished soldiers all shared the experience of serving or studying at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where they gained the knowledge that would prepare them for command during World War II and the Korean War. In Generals of the Army, James H. Willbanks assembles top military historians to examine the connection between the institution and the success of these exceptional men. Historically known as the "intellectual center of the Army," Fort Leavenworth is the oldest active Army post west of Washington, D.C., and one of the most important military installations in the United States. Though there are many biographies of the five-star generals, this innovative study offers a fresh perspective by illuminating the ways in which these legendary figures influenced and were influenced by Leavenworth. Coinciding with the U.S. Mint's release of a series of special commemorative coins honoring these soldiers and the fort where they were based, this concise volume offers an intriguing look at the lives of these remarkable men and the contributions they made to the defense of the nation.
In 1898 the American Regular Army was a small frontier constabulary engaged in skirmishes with Indians and protesting workers. Forty-three years later, in 1941, it was a large modern army ready to wage global war against the Germans and the Japanese. In this definitive social history of America's standing army, military historian Edward Coffman tells how that critical transformation was accomplished. Coffman has spent years immersed in the official records, personal papers, memoirs, and biographies of regular army men, including such famous leaders as George Marshall, George Patton, and Douglas MacArthur. He weaves their stories, and those of others he has interviewed, into the story of an army which grew from a small community of posts in China and the Philippines to a highly effective mechanized ground and air force. During these years, the U.S. Army conquered and controlled a colonial empire, military staff lived in exotic locales with their families, and soldiers engaged in combat in Cuba and the Pacific. In the twentieth century, the United States entered into alliances to fight the German army in World War I, and then again to meet the challenge of the Axis Powers in World War II. Coffman explains how a managerial revolution in the early 1900s provided the organizational framework and educational foundation for change, and how the combination of inspired leadership, technological advances, and a supportive society made it successful. In a stirring account of all aspects of garrison life, including race relations, we meet the men and women who helped reconfigure America's frontier army into a modern global force.
Officer Education in the U.S. Army and the German Armed Forces, 1901-1940, and the Consequences for World War II
Author: Jörg Muth
Publisher: University of North Texas Press
Muth examines the different paths the United States Army and the German Armed Forces traveled to select, educate, and promote their officers in the crucial time before World War II. He demonstrates that the military education system in Germany represented an organized effort where each school provided the stepping stone for the next. But in the US, there existed no communication about teaching contents among the various schools.
This work focuses primarily on military medicine during this conflict. Historian Vincent J. Cirillo argues that there is a universal element of military culture that stifles medical progress. This war gave army medical officers an opportunity to introduce to the battlefield new medical technology, including the X-ray, aseptic surgery and sanitary systems derived from the germ theory. With few exceptions, however, their recommendations were ignored almost completely.
A strong addition to the existing military history reference literature and to its series. . . . Dawson's research guide is more useful than a standard bibliography, and much more thorough for the time period covered than [other] sources. . . . Dawson builds his guide around more than 1,100 bibliographic entries, many of which have brief, descriptive annotations. The citations, arranged topically in eight chapters, are drawn from books, periodicals, and dissertations. A ninth chapter covers pertinent government documents and manuscript collections. Author and subject indexes and four useful appendixes are included. There is a fine introductory essay: the preface lists and briefly describes 50 top secondary sources selected from the larger body of literature. These features truly enhance the bibliographic core of the book and make it a guide useful to general readers, upper-level undergraduates, graduate students, and scholars. Choice The period between the Civil War and the end of the nineteenth century was a time of hard choices for the U.S. Army and those who led it. The federal government thrust numerous responsibilities upon the military, including pacifying the Indians, patrolling the defeated Confederacy, suppressing striking laborers, and supervising national parks. This comprehensive bibliography focuses on this period of military history, cataloging, surveying, and appraising the substantial body of contemporary and historical literature that traces the evolution of the U.S. Army from 1865 to 1898. As the largest single-volume reference work of its type, the book covers all major aspects of Army activities, and contains annotations on 80 percent of its entries. Following a series foreword by Roger J. Spiller and a brief introduction, the volume begins with an extensive survey of government documents and manuscript collections. Included here is a wide variety of U.S. government publications pertaining to the Army, many from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Subsequent chapters group sources under bibliographic topics, such as general secondary works, fiction, and memoirs and contemporary accounts, as well as under subjects that refer to the Army's activities. These include the Army and Reconstruction, the Indian-fighting Army, forts and post life, the late 19th century Army, and coastal defense. A series of appendixes provides a period chronology, list commanding generals and secretaries of war, and chart army strength. A set of author and subject indexes conclude the work. The Late 19th Century U.S. Army will be an important addition to the collections of public and academic libraries, and a useful resource tool for courses in U.S. history and military history.
With the advent of better weapons, the American army learned that massing tight lines of soldiers to attack dug-in defenders would not work as well as it had. Soldiers began to study the issue and develop new field tactics. In 1891 Fort Leavenworth published the first true tactical manual. Not until the advent of the field radio was the problem solved of communicating with troops spread much farther apart.
After World War I, J F C Fuller stated that the three pillars of generalship (meaning good generalship of course) are "courage, creative intelligence, and physical fitness: and the attributes of youth rather than middle age." The study of character traits and leadership principles dominated our thought and leadership teaching methodology during and after World War II, with role playing and case studies used extensively. Current leadership doctrine for the entire Army is prescribed in Field Manual 6-22, Army Leadership, a publication that relies heavily on historical examples for its message. Since "the foundations of Army leadership are firmly grounded in history," senior leaders must have a core of historical knowledge to give them the perspective necessary to solve the leadership and command challenges of today.
American Military Occupation and Foreign Policy After World War II
Author: Walter M. Hudson
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
In the immediate aftermath of World War II, the United States Army became the principal agent of American foreign policy. The army designed, implemented, and administered the occupations of the defeated Axis powers Germany and Japan, as well as many other nations. Generals such as Lucius Clay in Germany, Douglas MacArthur in Japan, Mark Clark in Austria, and John Hodge in Korea presided over these territories as proconsuls. At the beginning of the Cold War, more than 300 million people lived under some form of U.S. military authority. The army's influence on nation-building at the time was profound, but most scholarship on foreign policy during this period concentrates on diplomacy at the highest levels of civilian government rather than the armed forces' governance at the local level. In Army Diplomacy, Hudson explains how U.S. Army policies in the occupied nations represented the culmination of more than a century of military doctrine. Focusing on Germany, Austria, and Korea, Hudson's analysis reveals that while the post--World War II American occupations are often remembered as overwhelming successes, the actual results were mixed. His study draws on military sociology and institutional analysis as well as international relations theory to demonstrate how "bottom-up" decisions not only inform but also create higher-level policy. As the debate over post-conflict occupations continues, this fascinating work offers a valuable perspective on an important yet underexplored facet of Cold War history.
Author, educator, and reformer, Arthur L. Wagner was instrumental in pushing the U.S. Army into the twentieth century. From a lackluster beginning at West Point, Wagner went on to become one of the most influential officers of his day; and through his prolific writing, he was nearly a household name to his colleagues. Wagner?s pioneering work for the army came at a time when many officers preferred the school of experience to formal education. Against the opposition of the army?s ?old guard,? Wagner succeeded in turning the army toward a professional ethic that required diligent study and reflection. In this well-written and thoughtful biography, T. R. Brereton traces the life of a remarkable soldier who played a central role in the introduction of new tactics, maneuvers, and army lesson learning.
French Influence on the American Way of Warfare from the War of 1812 to the Outbreak of WWII
Author: Michael Bonura
Publisher: NYU Press
The way an army thinks about and understands warfare has a tremendous impact on its organization, training, and operations. The central ideas of that understanding form a nation's way of warfare that influences decisions on and off the battlefield. From the disasters of the War of 1812, Winfield Scott ensured that America adopted a series of ideas formed in the crucible of the Wars of the French Revolution and epitomized by Napoleon. Reflecting American cultural changes, these French ideas dominated American warfare on the battlefields of the Mexican-American War, the American Civil War, the Spanish-American War, and World War I. America remained committed to these ideas until cultural pressures and the successes of German Blitzkrieg from 1939 - 1940 led George C. Marshall to orchestrate the adoption of a different understanding of warfare. Michael A. Bonura examines concrete battlefield tactics, army regulations, and theoretical works on war as they were presented in American army education manuals, professional journals, and the popular press, to demonstrate that as a cultural construction, warfare and ways of warfare can be transnational and influence other nations.
100 Years of Making Marines and Winning Battles, an Anthology
Author: Paul W. Westermeyer
Publisher: Marine Corps Association
In the summer of 2017, the newly arrived president of Marine Corps University, Brigadier General William J. Bowers, ordered a lecture series, "The Legacy of Belleau Wood: 100 Years of Making Marines and Winning Battles." The series would include four lectures, and it was to be supported by an anthology produced by History Division, providing readings to the students on the topics each lecture would cover. The intent was to produce an anthology of lasting worth to Marines, broadly depicting keystone moments in the history of the Corps during the century following the Battle of Belleau Wood. This volume presents a collection of 36 extracts, articles, letters, orders, interviews, and biographies. The work is intended to serve as a general overview and provisional reference to inform both Marines and the general public of the broad outlines of notable trends and controversies in Marine Corps history--Provided by publisher.
Forts Laramie, Bridger, and D.A. Russell, 1849-1912
Author: Alison K. Hoagland
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
By examining the three exemplary Wyoming forts of Laramie, Bridger, and D. A. Russell, the author explains how widely varying architectural designs, rather than standardized plans, were used to construct western American forts.