A description of the English language as a dynamic system in the evolutionary process of radical typological restructuring, which has deeply affected its constituent subsystems - grammatical, lexical and phonic.
English is increasingly becoming the world's lingua franca. If we are not native speakers of one of the many varieties of English, then we may be students of English, or use English regularly for academic or business purposes. The English Language series, which is international in focus, aims to synthesize the wealth of existing linguistic research both on and in English. Each volume in the series is designed to present these findings in an accessible, enlightening and entertaining way not only to students of English linguistics but to learners and users of English across the globe. The English Writing System describes how writing is not simply ancillary to other aspects of language but vitally important to almost everything we do, from signing our wills to sending a text message. This book discusses the mechanics of the writing systems of English; the different ways people process words on a page and the mistakes they can make; how children and second language learners acquire these systems; the historical development of the language and the progress of writing technology: in short, the effectiveness of the writing systems of English. Combining an academic perspective from linguistics and psychology with insights into everyday spelling mistakes, The English Writing System will interest students and teachers of linguistics, literature, the English language, psychology and education.
Second Language Writing Systems looks at how people learn and use a second language writing system, arguing that they are affected by characteristics of the first and second writing systems, to a certain extent independently of the languages involved. This book for the first time presents the effects of writing systems on second language reading and writing and on second language awareness, and provides a new platform for discussing bilingualism, biliteracy and writing systems.
This book teaches teachers how to present grammar lessons to their students with confidence and clarity. Introduces future teachers of English to the major elements of English grammar in a systematic fashion, using step-by-step procedures, charts, diagrams, and exercises. Includes a complete answer key to exercises. Grammar teachers.
David Crystal OBE provides the reader with a thorough and fascinating analysis of the patterns of intonation and prosody found within the English language. He begins by contextualising his work on prosody within existing studies, before going on to discuss voice quality and sound attributes in prosodic systems.
This book raises the issue of what a teacher needs to know about English in order to teach it effectively. It leads teachers to awareness of the language through a wide range of tasks which involve them in analysing English to discover its underlying system.
This bold and accessible study of human languages and communication explores issues which are at the forefront of today's globalized society. The human species is divided into more than five thousand language groups that do not understand each other. And yet these groups constitute one coherent world language system, connected by multilingual speakers in a surprisingly powerful way. The chances of a language thriving depend on its position in the system. There are thousands of small, peripheral languages, each connected to one of a hundred central languages. The entire system is held together by one global language: English. A language is a ‘hypercollective' good: the more speakers it has, the higher its communication value for each one of them. Thus, when people think that a language is gaining new speakers, that in itself is a reason for them to want to learn it too. That is why, in an age of globalization, only a few languages remain for transnational communication and these often prevail even in national societies. This important book discusses a number of specific constellations in detail: India, Indonesia, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Africa and the European Union. De Swaan concludes by providing a sober but illuminating view of language policy in multilingual societies. This book will be essential reading for those studying sociology, communication studies and linguistics.
Master's Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject English - Literature, Works, grade: A, Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University, language: English, comment: The paper is composed according to the VAK standard which is generally accepted in Ukraine. According to it, formating and referencing were performed. The work is written in English, only the items in BIBLIOGRAPHY are put in the languages they were published in: English, Ukrainian and Russian. The research is focused on the neologisms that appeared in the British newspapers during years 2000 - 2010. There was collected the list of 370 neologism with the examples of the context they were used in. There was also performed typological, morphological and statystical analysis of the new lexemes., abstract: The purpose of the present work is to investigate the neologisms in the lexical system of the modern English language and reveal the major trends and tendencies taking place within the processes of the new words formation and distribution. To achieve the above mentioned purpose the following objectives are established: to study the theoretical linguistic material and the latest data on those lexicological facts and phenomena which are related to the topic of the present research; to analyze the most highly rated newspapers of Great Britain with the aim of selecting newly created and borrowed lexemes; to build up a collection of neologisms from the above mentioned mass media; to define the dominant part of speech prevailing among the collected neologisms and the distribution of other parts of speech within this framework; to define and study the types of word building inherent in the neologisms; to define and investigate the most dominant word building type and study the distribution of other ones characteristic of the collected new lexemes. In the present paper there were used such methods of scientific research as analysis and synthesis, following every chapter and part of the current work, descrip
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
How does language work? What are the different elements? How do they all fit together? The Frameworks of English is a step-by-step guide through the various levels of language, describing the morphological, lexical, grammatical and phonological frameworks of contemporary English in a clear and logical way. Beginning with words as the building blocks of language, it investigates their internal structure and shows how words can be combined into larger and larger units, from phrases to sentences and beyond. The sound system of language is explored, covering the production of individual sounds as well as the features of syllable structure and connected speech. The third edition of this popular textbook: • features a new chapter on how to approach accent and dialect variation in English throughout the world • includes both spoken and written examples of electronically mediated language • offers updated suggestions for further reading and research • contains an expanded glossary of linguistic terminology to aid study With plenty of exercises and helpful cross-referencing The Frameworks of English covers everything that you need to know about linguistic structures.
The book is a contributory volume of essays on the teaching of English in Indian classrooms: the sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic aspects, the theories and practice, syllabus design, classroom methodologies and classroom management, materials development and evaluation strategies. It offers exhaustive, concrete and supportive theoretical systems to analyse the situation of teaching English as a second language in India.
This set of papers and debates derive from a conference that took place in Hong Kong in 1996. The participants analyzed the patterns of language use that prevailed in mid-1996 and assessed the linguistic changes that might accompany the political shift when Hong Kong is returned to China.
This two volume handbook provides a comprehensive examination of policy, practice, research and theory related to English Language Teaching in international contexts. More than 70 chapters highlight the research foundation for best practices, frameworks for policy decisions, and areas of consensus and controversy in second language acquisition and pedagogy. The Handbook provides a unique resource for policy makers, educational administrators, and researchers concerned with meeting the increasing demand for effective English language teaching. It offers a strongly socio-cultural view of language learning and teaching. It is comprehensive and global in perspective with a range of fresh new voices in English language teaching research.
Australia's English raises many questions among experts and the general public. What is it like? How has English changed by being transplanted to other parts of the world? Does the rise of AusE and other varieties endanger the role of English as a world language? Past studies have often been selective, focusing on the esoteric and non-typical, and ignoring the contact situation in which Australian English has developed. This book and its companion, Australia's Many Voices. Ethnic Englishes, Indigenous and Migrant Languages. Policy and Education, develop and apply a comprehensive and integrative approach that anchors English in the entire 'habitat' of Australia's languages that it both upset and transformed. Based on a wide range of data and on the assumption that all manifestations of Australian English must cohere as a system, this book retraces the social, psycholinguistic and linguistic history of the language. It locates the contact with indigenous and migrant languages and with American English in the appropriate sociohistorical context and shows how several layers of migration have shaped it. As it stratified, it was gradually accepted and developed into a fully-fledged national variety or epicentre of English that could be raised to the status of national language. Implications on educational policy and attempts to reach out into the Asia-Pacific region have followed logically from national status. The study is of interest for specialists of English and Australian Studies as well as a range of other disciplines. Its discursive, non-technical style and presentation makes it accessible to non-specialists with no background in linguistics.
London Jamaican provides the reader with a new perspective on African descent in London. Based on research carried out in the early 1980s, the author examines the linguistic background of the community, with special emphasis on young people of the first and second British-born generations.
Mastering the principles outlined in the book will give any teacher a broad base of knowledge from which to draw. But the book also urges you to think deeply about the roles of diversity. It offers valuable information for reflecting on, experimenting with, and adapting your instructional practices.
The series is a platform for contributions of all kinds to this rapidly developing field. General problems are studied from the perspective of individual languages, language families, language groups, or language samples. Conclusions are the result of a deepened study of empirical data. Special emphasis is given to little-known languages, whose analysis may shed new light on long-standing problems in general linguistics.
The volume is a practical introduction to the ways in which the teachers deal with classroom events in the context of change for researchers, teachers, administrators who wish to implement curriculum reform to EFL in schools. The author provides insights into the beliefs of Chinese teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), and their pedagogical choices in the context of the National English Curriculum Reform. The complex nature of EFL teachers’ beliefs about EFL teaching and learning are exposed, how their beliefs interact with mental and actionable processes triggered by classroom practice, and how their beliefs co-adapt with contexts to maintain the stability of the teachers’ belief systems. This is the first study to present complexity theory in a narrative context of education, exploring the non-linear and unpredictable features of the relationship between the teachers’ beliefs and practices. Integrating complexity theory with interpretivist, ecological and sociocultural perspectives, this book contributes to the research agenda by providing a systematic framework for examining teacher beliefs as a whole, and examining the extent to which western theory may be applied to Chinese educational contexts.
When translating the Hebrew verb in English, should one emphasize Aspect or Tense? Granted, aspect would form an integral part of Early Hebrew. Nevertheless, tense would become a dominant factor in Late Hebrew (i.e. Mishnaic and Modern Hebrew). From the foregoing it is clear that both aspect as well as tense should be involved in the transitional phase, i.e. Biblical Hebrew.