The extensiveness of war operations in Europe in 1914. caused that several theatres of war activities were created at that time. For obvious reasons, the western theatre of war remains the best known, thoroughly analyzed and described. The view on the unique contribution of the newly invented aviation to the events in this theatre still dominates. In its shadow remains Eastern European and - almost completely uncovered and forgotten in historiography - the Balkan theatre of war and its Adriatic sector. Even significant combat operations and episodes in this region for Western Europe still remain completely unfamiliar. The attention has been focused on the air war over the Western Front for years. Although interesting, full of dangerous actions and at the same time important achievements, the role of aviation on the Eastern Front is not exhibited in the studies and research of authors dealing with the issue of war operations in the East European theatre of the Great War; it can even be argued that it is not usually noticed at all in both older and recent references on the subject. It would not be erroneous to say that the subject taken up by Professor, Senior Doctor Lecturer Andrzej OLEJKO is almost completely undiscovered, and at the same time developmental, and is certainly thoroughly innovative and needed. Having undertaken such an extensive research in this area was justified by a very small amount of references and analytical studies devoted to this issue.
The well-respected historian Manfried Rauchensteiner analyses the outbreak of World War I, Emperor Franz Joseph's role in the conflict, and how the various nationalities of the Habsburg Monarchy reacted to the disintegration of this 640-yearold empire in 1918. After Archduke Franz Ferdinand"s assassination in Sarajevo in 1914, war was inevitable. Emperor Franz Joseph intended it, and everyone in Vienna expected it. How the war began and how Austria-Hungary managed to avoid capitulation only weeks later with the help of German troops reads like a thriller. Manfried Rauchensteiner"s book is based on decades of research and is a fascinating read to the very end, even though the final outcome, the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy, is already known. Originally published in German in 2013 by Böhlau, this standard work is now available in English.
Often the liberal movement has been viewed through the lens of its later German nationalism. This presents only one facet of a wide-ranging, all-encompassing project to regenerate the Habsburg Monarchy. By analysing its various nuances, this volume provides a new, more positive interpretation of Austro-German liberalism.
Drawing upon a wealth of previously untranslated documents, Broken Wings tells how a European nation built an entire air force in secret. Carved up and banned from having a military air service after World War I, Hungary became determined to rearm itself. In the early 1920s, Allied inspectors were evaded and obstructed at every turn; great efforts were made to stockpile equipment from the Great War; and the Hungarian government promoted the development of commercial aviation, partly as a front for military flight operations. The clandestine rearmament program could not depend on manufacturing at home but instead secretly accepted whichever planes Italy and Germany would sell them. During the late 1930s, the Hungarian air force went from operating as a secret branch of the army to an independent modernizing force in its own right. Hungarian air power played a great role in a victorious border skirmish with Slovakia in 1939. The cost of the reemergence of the Hungarian air force, however, was heavy: growing Nazi influence over the country, as Germany increasingly supplied aircraft and training. Inevitably, Hungary entered the Second World War on the side of the Axis in 1941, with its air force soon dwindling in independence and effectively becoming a Luftwaffe auxiliary force. Called back home to defend Hungary from incessant Allied bombings, the Hungarian air force ended the Second World War much as they had the First—salvaging aircraft parts from downed invaders and fighting until they no longer had airfields from which to operate.
This panoramic reappraisal shows why the Habsburg Empire mattered for so long to so many Central Europeans across divides of language, religion, and region. Pieter Judson shows that creative government—and intractable problems the far-flung empire could not solve—left an enduring imprint on successor states. Its lessons are no less important today.
Noel Field, Allen Dulles and the East European Show-Trials
Author: Tony Sharp
Stalin's American Spy tells the remarkable story of Noel Field, a Soviet agent in the US State Department in the mid-1930s. Lured to Prague in May 1949, he was kidnapped and handed over to the Hungarian secret police. Tortured by them and interrogated too by their Soviet superiors, Field's forced 'confessions' were manipulated by Stalin and his East European satraps to launch a devastating series of show-trials that led to the imprisonment and judicial murder of numerous Czechoslovak, German, Polish and Hungarian party members. Yet there were other events in his very strange career that could give rise to the suspicion that Field was an American spy who had infiltrated the Communist movement at the behest of Allen Dulles, the wartime OSS chief in Switzerland who later headed the CIA. Never tried, Field and his wife were imprisoned in Budapest until 1954, then granted political asylum in Hungary, where they lived out their sterile last years. This new biography takes a fresh look at Field's relationship with Dulles, and his role in the Alger Hiss affair. It sheds fresh light upon Soviet espionage in the United States and Field's relationship with Hede Massing, Ignace Reiss and Walter Krivitsky. It also reassesses how the increasingly anti-Semitic East European show-trials were staged and dissects the 'lessons" which Stalin sought to convey through them.
By reproducing the political and historiographical debates surrounding the legacy of the Habsburg Empire, this book follows the transformation of historico-political thinking during the two world wars. This transformation began in Germany, where v�lkish streams of the Conservative Revolution offered a radical new interpretation of history. These reading focused on the unchanging essence of the Volk and treated a certain idea of the Habsburg past as inorganic, "derailing" history and conflicting with the true calling of the German people. The v�lkish movement and its historiography both inspired and challenged Austrian and Hungarian intellectuals, asking them to either adopt or resist this new philosophy and the politics it represented. Building a history out of the realignment of German thought and its affect on small states within Germany's cultural orbit, this volume richly recounts the clash between domestic tradition and imported "innovations."