The extensiveness of war operations in Europe in 1914. caused that several theatres of war activities were created at that time. For obvious reasons, the western theatre of war remains the best known, thoroughly analyzed and described. The view on the unique contribution of the newly invented aviation to the events in this theatre still dominates. In its shadow remains Eastern European and - almost completely uncovered and forgotten in historiography - the Balkan theatre of war and its Adriatic sector. Even significant combat operations and episodes in this region for Western Europe still remain completely unfamiliar. The attention has been focused on the air war over the Western Front for years. Although interesting, full of dangerous actions and at the same time important achievements, the role of aviation on the Eastern Front is not exhibited in the studies and research of authors dealing with the issue of war operations in the East European theatre of the Great War; it can even be argued that it is not usually noticed at all in both older and recent references on the subject. It would not be erroneous to say that the subject taken up by Professor, Senior Doctor Lecturer Andrzej OLEJKO is almost completely undiscovered, and at the same time developmental, and is certainly thoroughly innovative and needed. Having undertaken such an extensive research in this area was justified by a very small amount of references and analytical studies devoted to this issue.
Drawing upon a wealth of previously untranslated documents, Broken Wings tells how a European nation built an entire air force in secret. Carved up and banned from having a military air service after World War I, Hungary became determined to rearm itself. In the early 1920s, Allied inspectors were evaded and obstructed at every turn; great efforts were made to stockpile equipment from the Great War; and the Hungarian government promoted the development of commercial aviation, partly as a front for military flight operations. The clandestine rearmament program could not depend on manufacturing at home but instead secretly accepted whichever planes Italy and Germany would sell them. During the late 1930s, the Hungarian air force went from operating as a secret branch of the army to an independent modernizing force in its own right. Hungarian air power played a great role in a victorious border skirmish with Slovakia in 1939. The cost of the reemergence of the Hungarian air force, however, was heavy: growing Nazi influence over the country, as Germany increasingly supplied aircraft and training. Inevitably, Hungary entered the Second World War on the side of the Axis in 1941, with its air force soon dwindling in independence and effectively becoming a Luftwaffe auxiliary force. Called back home to defend Hungary from incessant Allied bombings, the Hungarian air force ended the Second World War much as they had the First—salvaging aircraft parts from downed invaders and fighting until they no longer had airfields from which to operate.
Winner of the 2015 Norman B. Tomlinson, Jr. Book Prize Serbia and the Balkan Front, 1914 is the first history of the Great War to address in-depth the crucial events of 1914 as they played out on the Balkan Front. James Lyon demonstrates how blame for the war's outbreak can be placed squarely on Austria-Hungary's expansionist plans and internal political tensions, Serbian nationalism, South Slav aspirations, the unresolved Eastern Question, and a political assassination sponsored by renegade elements within Serbia's security services. In doing so, he portrays the background and events of the Sarajevo Assassination and the subsequent military campaigns and diplomacy on the Balkan Front during 1914. The book details the first battle of the First World War, the first Allied victory and the massive military humiliations Austria-Hungary suffered at the hands of tiny Serbia, while discussing the oversized strategic role Serbia played for the Allies during 1914. Lyon challenges existing historiography that contends the Habsburg Army was ill-prepared for war and shows that the Dual Monarchy was in fact superior in manpower and technology to the Serbian Army, thus laying blame on Austria-Hungary's military leadership rather than on its state of readiness. Based on archival sources from Belgrade, Sarajevo and Vienna and using never-before-seen material to discuss secret negotiations between Turkey and Belgrade to carve up Albania, Serbia's desertion epidemic, its near-surrender to Austria-Hungary in November 1914, and how Serbia became the first belligerent to openly proclaim its war aims, Serbia and the Balkan Front, 1914 enriches our understanding of the outbreak of the war and Serbia's role in modern Europe. It is of great importance to students and scholars of the history of the First World War as well as military, diplomatic and modern European history.
1914-1918, David Stevenson's history of the First World War, has been acclaimed as the definitive one-volume account of the conflict In the summer of 1914 Europe exploded into a frenzy of mass violence. The war that followed had global repercussions, destroying four empires and costing millions of lives. Even the victorious countries were scarred for a generation, and we still today remain within the conflict's shadow. In this major analysis David Stevenson re-examines the causes, course and impact of this 'war to end war', placing it in the context of its era and exposing its underlying dynamics. His book provides a wide-ranging international history, drawing on insights from the latest research. It offers compelling answers to the key questions about how this terrible struggle unfolded: questions that remain disturbingly relevant for our own time. 'It's harder to imagine a better single-volume comprehensive history of the conflict than this superb study' Ian Kershaw 'Perhaps the best comprehensive one-volume history of the war yet written' New Yorker 'David Stevenson is the real deal ... His defining characteristic is his outstanding rigour as an historian ... tremendously clever' Niall Ferguson 'This history of the 1914-1918 conflict surpasses all others. It is tough, erudite and comprehensive' Independent
With the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and the break-up of the Soviet Union, nationalism and its effects are once more at the forefront of attention. However, to understand more fully what is happening now it is valuable to look back into the past and examine the construction and collapse of the multi-national Habsburg Empire. After examining how the Holy Roman Empire became the Austrian Empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century, this collection of essays charts the subsequent growth of distinctive regional identities in Hungary, Galicia, Trieste and Croatia, before looking at the official attempts to define 'ethnic identity' and what harm resulted from their good intentions. Differing constructions of Austrian identity among Jewish novelists, women writers and art historians - besides the literary works of Hofmannsthal and Musil - are then analysed, as are the attempts to devise a new Austrian identity under the semi-fascist rule of the 1930s and the early years of the post-war Second Republic. Concluding with a general analysis contrasting the gradual integration of nations in present-day western Europe with the dissolution of multi-national states in the east, Austrian Studies 5 is both a challenging reappraisal of a fallen Empire and a timely reflection of an on-going question.
The Great War toppled four empires, cost the world 24 million dead, and sowed the seeds of another worldwide conflict 20 years later. This is the only book in the English language to offer comprehensive coverage of how Germany and Austria-Hungary, two of the key belligerents, conducted the war and what defeat meant to them. This new edition has been thoroughly updated throughout, including new developments in the historiography and, in particular, addressing new work on the cultural history of the war. This edition also includes: - New material on the domestic front, covering Austria-Hungary's internal political frictions and ethnic fissures - More on Austria-Hungary and Germany's position within the wider geopolitical framework - Increased coverage of the Eastern front The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary, 1914-1918 offers an authoritative and well-researched survey of the role of the Central powers that will be an invaluable text for all those studying the First World War and the development of modern warfare.