For several decades it has been widely accepted that human space exploration is the exclusive domain of government agencies. The cost of performing such missions, estimated in multiple reports to amount to hundreds of billions dollars over decades, was far beyond what private entities could afford. That arrangement seems to be changing. Buoyed by the success of its program to develop commercial cargo capabilities to support the International Space Station, NASA is becoming increasingly open to working with the private sector in its human space exploration plans. The new private-public partnership will make 'planet hopping' feasible. This book analyses the move towards planet hopping, which sees human outposts moving across the planetary dimensions, from the Moon to Near-Earth Asteroids and Mars. It critically assesses the intention to exploit space resources and how successful these missions will be for humanity. This insightful and accessible book will be of great interest to scholars and students of space policy and politics, international studies, and science and technology studies.
A collection of essays by Gould, Sagan, Forward, and others discusses the issues involved with further space exploration, describing the wonders of our solar system, predicting scientific findings, and considering extraterrestrial life. UP.
An understandable perspective on the types of space propulsion systems necessary to enable low-cost space flights to Earth orbit and to the Moon and the future developments necessary for exploration of the solar system and beyond to the stars.
**This is the chapter slice "The Future of Space Exploration" from the full lesson plan "Space Travel & Technology"** Create a Vision of Tomorrow with your students today as they imagine being part of the crew of a shuttle mission to the International Space Station. Your students will become the scientists, engineers, astronauts and leaders who will continue the Vision for Space Exploration as it carries humanity back to the moon, then on to Mars and beyond. Today's teachers play an important role in preparing students for that journey. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Science concepts are presented in a way that makes them more accessible to students and easier to understand. Comprised of reading passages, student activities, test prep, and color mini posters, our resource can be used effectively for whole-class. All of our content is aligned to your State Standards and are written to Bloom's Taxonomy and STEM initiatives.
NASAâ€™s Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program within the Office of Space Flight has proposed a new framework for space technology and systems developmentâ€"Advanced Systems, Technology, Research, and Analysis (ASTRA) for future space flight capabilities. To assist in the development of this framework, NASA asked the National Research Council to convene a series of workshops on technology policy issues concerning the relationship of the various stakeholders in advancing human and robotic exploration and development of space. The first workshop, which is the topic of this report, focused on policy issues about the development and demonstration of space technologies. Four policy topicsâ€"selected by the project steering committee as the foci of this first workshopâ€"are discussed in the report: the rationale for human and robotic space exploration; technology as a driver for capability transformation; risk mitigation and perception; and international cooperation and competition.
Space was at the center of America’s imagination in the 1960s. President John F. Kennedy’s visionary statement captured the mood of the day: "We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard." The Apollo mission’s success in July 1969 made almost anything seem possible, but the Cold War made space flight the province of governmental agencies in the United States. When the Apollo program ended in 1972, space lost its hold on the public interest, as the great achievements wound down. Entrepreneurs are beginning to pick up the slack—looking for safer, more reliable, and more cost effective ways of exploring space. Entrepreneurial activity may make create a renaissance in human spaceflight. The private sector can energize the quest for space exploration and shape the race for the final frontier. Space entrepreneurs and private sector firms are making significant innovations in space travel. They have plans for future tourism in space and safer shuttles. Solomon details current US and international laws dealing with space use, settlement, and exploration, and offers policy recommendations to facilitate privatization. As private enterprise takes hold, it threatens to change the space landscape forever. Individuals are designing spacecraft, start-up companies are testing prototypes, and reservations are being taken for suborbital space flights. With for-profit enterprises carving out a new realm, it is entirely possible that space will one day be a sea of hotels and/or a repository of resources for big business. It is important that regulations are in place for this eventuality. These new developments have great importance, huge implications, and urgency for everyone.
More than four decades have passed since a human first set foot on the Moon. Great strides have been made in our understanding of what is required to support an enduring human presence in space, as evidenced by progressively more advanced orbiting human outposts, culminating in the current International Space Station (ISS). However, of the more than 500 humans who have so far ventured into space, most have gone only as far as near-Earth orbit, and none have traveled beyond the orbit of the Moon. Achieving humans' further progress into the solar system had proved far more difficult than imagined in the heady days of the Apollo missions, but the potential rewards remain substantial. During its more than 50-year history, NASA's success in human space exploration has depended on the agency's ability to effectively address a wide range of biomedical, engineering, physical science, and related obstacles--an achievement made possible by NASA's strong and productive commitments to life and physical sciences research for human space exploration, and by its use of human space exploration infrastructures for scientific discovery. The Committee for the Decadal Survey of Biological and Physical Sciences acknowledges the many achievements of NASA, which are all the more remarkable given budgetary challenges and changing directions within the agency. In the past decade, however, a consequence of those challenges has been a life and physical sciences research program that was dramatically reduced in both scale and scope, with the result that the agency is poorly positioned to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by the now fully equipped and staffed ISS laboratory, or to effectively pursue the scientific research needed to support the development of advanced human exploration capabilities. Although its review has left it deeply concerned about the current state of NASA's life and physical sciences research, the Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space is nevertheless convinced that a focused science and engineering program can achieve successes that will bring the space community, the U.S. public, and policymakers to an understanding that we are ready for the next significant phase of human space exploration. The goal of this report is to lay out steps and develop a forward-looking portfolio of research that will provide the basis for recapturing the excitement and value of human spaceflight--thereby enabling the U.S. space program to deliver on new exploration initiatives that serve the nation, excite the public, and place the United States again at the forefront of space exploration for the global good.
This book offers an enlightening analysis of the ways in which the communication of space explorations has evolved in response to political and social developments and the availability of new media and communication tools. Important challenges to effective communication are discussed, including the diversity of audiences, the risks associated with space missions, and continuing skepticism about the benefits of space research despite the many associated day-to-day applications. In addition, future trends in communication are examined with reference to likely trends in space exploration over the coming century. Besides space communication for the public, the need for targeted messaging to each group of stakeholders – decision makers, media, opinion leaders, the scientific community, and industry – is analyzed in detail. A series of case studies of particular space missions, both successful and unsuccessful, is presented to illustrate key issues. The book has significant implications for the communication of science in general and will be of interest to a wide audience, including space scientists, science communication professionals, people fascinated by exploration and discovery, stakeholders, and educators.
Space exploration, especially the recent push for the commercialization and militarization of space, is attracting increased attention not only from the wider public and the private sector but also from scholars in a wide range of disciplines. At this moment of uncertainty about the future direction of national spaceflight programs, The Value of Science in Space Exploration defends the idea, often overlooked, that the scientific understanding of the Solar System is both intrinsically and instrumentally valuable. Drawing on research from the physical sciences, social sciences, and the humanities, James S.J. Schwartz argues further that there is truly a compelling obligation to improve upon our scientific understanding-including our understanding of space environments-and that there exists a corresponding duty to engage in the scientific exploration of the Solar System. After outlining the underpinning epistemological debates, Schwartz tackles how this obligation affects the way we should approach some of the major questions of contemporary space science and policy: Is there a need for environmental preservation in space? Should humans try to establish settlements on the Moon, Mars, or elsewhere in the Solar System, and if so, how? In answering these questions, Schwartz parleys with recent work in science policy and social philosophy of science to characterize the instrumental value of scientific research, identifying space research as a particularly effective generator of new knowledge. Additionally, whereas planetary protection policies are currently employed to prevent biological contamination only of sites of interest in the search for extraterrestrial life, Schwartz contends that all sites of interest to space science ought to be protected. Meanwhile, both space resource exploitation, such as lunar or asteroid mining, and human space settlement would result in extensive disruption or destruction of pristine space environments. The overall ethical value of these environments in the production of new knowledge and understanding is greater than their value as commercial or real commodities, and thus confirms that the exploitation and settlement of space should be avoided until the scientific community develops an adequate understanding of these environments. At a time when it is particularly pertinent to consider the ways in which space exploration might help solve some of the world's ethical and resource-driven concerns, The Value of Science in Space Exploration is a thought-provoking and much-needed examination into the world of space.
This classic reference is considered the best single source of information on how to facilitate human adjustment and performance in long-term isolation. It is filled with exciting stories of survival—the exploits of explorers, military personnel, scientists and astronauts—along with expert analyses of failed expeditions and lessons learned. Jack Stuster identifies the principles of habitability and presents more than 200 specific recommendations to help individuals in confinement. The book's recommendations and habitability principles are relevant to a variety of space and earthbound conditions, including polar, underwater, and underground, exploration and habitation. In fact, nearly all human relationships that involve small groups of people living and working together in isolated areas can benefit from this study. Stuster's goal is to help others avoid behavioral problems that affect performance, often with tragic consequences.
The author of The Case for Mars provides an insider's look at the future of space exploration and travel, examining the true potential for human expeditions into outer space, the prospects for colonization of the outer planets of the solar system, and their implications for the future of humankind. 35,000 first printing.