From monumental tombs and domestic decoration, to acts of benefaction and portraits of ancestors, Roman freed slaves, or freedmen, were prodigious patrons of art and architecture. Traditionally, however, the history of Roman art has been told primarily through the monumental remains of the emperors and ancient writers who worked in their circles. In this study, Lauren Petersen critically investigates the notion of 'freedman art' in scholarship, dependent as it is on elite-authored texts that are filled with hyperbole and stereotypes of freedmen, such as the memorable fictional character Trimalchio, a boorish ex-slave in Petronius' Satyricon. She emphasizes integrated visual ensembles within defined historical and social contexts and aims to show how material culture can reflect preoccupations that were prevalent throughout Roman society. Interdisciplinary in scope, this book explores the many ways that monuments and artistic commissions by freedmen spoke to a much more complex reality than that presented in literature.
Freedmen occupied a complex and often problematic place in Roman society between slaves on the one hand and freeborn citizens on the other. Playing an extremely important role in the economic life of the Roman world, they were also a key instrument for replenishing and even increasing the size of the citizen body. This book presents an original synthesis, for the first time covering both Republic and Empire in a single volume. While providing up-to-date discussions of most significant aspects of the phenomenon, the book also offers a new understanding of the practice of manumission, its role in the organisation of slave labour and the Roman economy, as well as the deep-seated ideological concerns to which it gave rise. It locates the freedman in a broader social and economic context, explaining the remarkable popularity of manumission in the Roman world.
What Does Liberty Mean for a Freedman? Calabar was brought from Africa to North-Carolina as a boy and sold on the docks as chattel property to a plantation owner. On the plantation, he learned the intricacies of indigo production, fell in love, and started a family. Abruptly released from bondage, he must find his way in a society that has no place for him, but which is itself struggling with the threat of British domination. Reeling from personal griefs, and drawn into the chaos of the Revolution, Calabar knows that the wrong moves could cost him his freedom—and that of the nation. The Freedman is set in North-Carolina as part of the Tales From a Revolution series, in which each standalone novel examines the American War of Independence as it unfolded in a different colony. If you like stories of strong characters striving to overcome impossible challenges, you’ll love The Freedman. Grab your copy of The Freedman today and see how the American Revolution’s promise of liberty was not always kept!
The manuscript of the following pages has been handed to me with the request that I would revise it for publication, or weave its facts into a story which should show the fitness of the Southern black for the exercise of the right of suffrage. The narrative is a plain and unpretending account of the life of a man whose own right arm—to use his own expression—won his rights as a freeman. It is written with the utmost simplicity, and has about it the verisimilitude which belongs to truth, and to truth only when told by one who has been a doer of the deeds and an actor in the scenes which he describes. It has the further rare merit of being written by one of the "despised race"; for none but a negro can fully and correctly depict negro life and character. General Thomas—a Southern man, and a friend of the Southern negro—was once in conversation with a gentleman who has attained some reputation as a delineator of the black man, when a long, lean, "poor white man," then a scout in the Union army, approached the latter, and, giving his shoulder a familiar slap, accosted him with,— "How are you, ole feller?" The gentleman turned about, and forgetting, in his joy at meeting an old friend, the presence of this most dignified of our military men, responded to the salutation of the scout in an equally familiar and boisterous manner. General Thomas "smiled wickedly," and quietly remarked,— "You seem to know each other." "Know him!" exclaimed the scout. "Why, Gin'ral, I ha'n't seed him fur fourteen year; but I sh'u'd know him, ef his face war as black as it war one night when we went ter a nigger shindy tergether!" The gentleman colored up to the roots of his hair, and stammered out,— "That was in my boy days, General, when I was sowing my wild oats." "Don't apologize, Sir," answered the General, "don't apologize; for I see that to your youthful habit of going to negro shindies we owe your truthful pictures of negro life." And the General was right. Every man and woman who has essayed to depict the slave character has miserably failed, unless inoculated with the genuine spirit of the negro; and even those who have succeeded best have done only moderately well, because they have not had the negro nature. It is reserved to some black Shakspeare or Dickens to lay open the wonderful humor, pathos, poetry, and power which slumber in the negro's soul, and which now and then flash out like the fire from a thunder-cloud. ...
Elites have shaped southern life and communities, argues the distinguished historian Willard Gatewood. These essays--written by Gatewood's colleagues and former students in his honor--explore the influence of particular elites in the South from the American Revolution to the Little Rock integration crisis. They discuss not only the power of elites to shape the experiences of the ordinary people, but the tensions and negotiations between elites in a particular locale, whether those elites were white or black, urban or rural, or male or female. Subjects include the particular kinds of power available to black elites in Savannah, Georgia, during the American Revolution; the transformation of a southern secessionist into an anti-slavery activist during the Civil War; a Tennessee "aristocrat of color" active in politics from Reconstruction to World War II; middle-class Southern women, both black and white, in the New Deal and the Little Rock integration crisis; and the different brands of paternalism in Arkansas plantations during the Jacksonian and Jim Crow eras and in the postwar Georgia carpet industry. Willard B. Gatewood's published works span political, intellectual, social, cultural, economic, military, ethnic, and even environmental history. His focus on the impact of the elite in history began with his first published monograph about a North Carolina educator, Eugene Clyde Brooks, and culminated in Aristocrats of Color: The Black Elite, 1880--1920, first published by Indiana University Press in 1991 and reprinted by the University of Arkansas Press in 2000.
The Freedman of African Descent in the Slave Societies of the New World
Author: David W. Cohen
Publisher: JHU Press
Category: Social Science
The task was to canvass current knowledge and pinpoint areas of needed research regarding two topics: first, the experience of the free colored as a measure of the character of slavery and race relations; second, the fundamental roles of this group in the evolution of the respective societies."—American Historical Review
The Freedman's Handbook embodies the principle that knowledge is power. With the knowledge that is shared from this book comes the power to master your finances, your habits, and your direction in life as a truly free citizen. Where ever you are in your journey to freedom, may this educational and insightful read be your trusted companion and guide to a better tomorrow. Readers can feel free and safe to jump in where ever they feel fits them best, as the pace of progress is dictated by the individual following the guide. If you choose to follow the linear path of the handbook, you will first be armed with knowledge of the history of debt slavery and its healthy existence still today; walking through its purpose, structure, and evolution. After solidifying where we came from, we move on to where to go and how to get there. First we prepare for the journey by building up the reader's knowledge of a master's mindset with successful habits and financial goal setting, before fortifying their competence in the core principles of accounting, finance, and management. Again, this is all at the reader's pace; this guide is a companion for the journey, not an impatient or overwhelming professor! Once the reader has acquired more clarity on concepts including banking, proper use of credit, and the workings of interest (for and against them), the process begins to build a road map to achieve goals while promoting stability and growth. These strategies will pave a path to freedom land, where a freedman can become the master of their own life, happiness and labor. However, the guide doesn't leave you here. Once freedom is earned, it must be nurtured, appreciated, and secured into the future. To help protect and promote this new found freedom, this book goes on to help you explore the opportunities now open to you. As you begin filling out the shoes of your potential and possibilities, you become a model freedman to follow. Your experience from the successful completion of this jou