Explores this dark aspect of folklore and religion and the role that demons play in the modern world. Includes numerous entries documenting beliefs about demons and demonology from ancient history to the present.
This exhaustive volume catalogs nearly three thousand demons in the mythologies and lore of virtually every ancient society and most religions. From Aamon, the demon of life and reproduction with the head of a serpent and the body of a wolf in Christian demonology, to Zu, the half-man, half-bird personification of the southern wind and thunder clouds in Sumero-Akkadian mythology, entries offer descriptions of each demon’s origins, appearance and cultural significance. Also included are descriptions of the demonic and diabolical members making up the hierarchy of Hell and the numerous species of demons that, according to various folklores, mythologies, and religions, populate the earth and plague mankind. Very thoroughly indexed.
Encyclopedia of Demons in World Religions and Cultures
Author: Theresa Bane
As a writer, editor, and compiler of myths, it is my goal to contribute to the academic studies in the fields of anthropology, folklore, mythology, and religion. Being a professional vampirologist—a mythologist who specializes in cross- cultural vampire studies—I have come across a number of vampiric entities who were also described as being demonic in nature. According to their original mythologies, these infernal, vampiric demons were said to have been created in a hell- like dimension or were described as being agents of evil who worked directly against the best interests of humanity. There are not so great a number of vampiric species that are demonic or demon- like in their nature or behavior, but the few that do exist and which were catalogued in my previous books did pique my interest. As is often the case, a little bit of research turned into a great deal of research, and a book of DEMONOLOGY began to write itself. Demonology, the study of demons, has been in and out of vogue with mankind over the centuries. Its acceptability as a subject has varied depending on how threatening the changing, ruling religious powers deemed it. For example, King Solomon, the much famed last king of the united Kingdom of Israel, was a man of great influence, wealth, and wisdom; he is credited with having ordered and overseen the construction of the first temple in Jerusalem. This is covered in the pseudepigraphical work The Testament of Solomon, which describes quite clearly how the king was empowered by God to summon and bind numerous demons to work on the temple’s construction. Obviously not only was it acceptable for a king to bind and utilize demons as a labor force, he had them working side by side with his human construction crews (Chapter Eighteen). Solomon was not the only king who was concerned about and confronted by demons. Before King James the First acceded to the throne of England in 1603, he had written and published a book entitled Daemonologie. In it he speaks on the subject of witchcraft and the witches’ relationship with the DEVIL. He discloses how these people, most often women, conspire to summon up the Devil and barter their souls for a pittance of power and ability. He mentions how they often become a demonic FAMILIAR, a companion gifted to someone by the Prince of Darkness, and how taking up the profession of witch-finding and hunting is both noble and necessary. As can be imagined, many witches were slain under his rule, even though the religion he embraced as his own clearly stated in the Epistle to the Romans (8:38–9) that neither sorcery nor witchcraft has the power to harm a Christian. This claim is based on the belief that when Christ died and was resurrected he simultaneously defeated all the forces of evil for all time. Nevertheless, in Daemonologie, James went on to very carefully and meticulously describe the fine line between a scientific scholar who studied the course of the stars, namely an astronomer, and an infernally aligned individual, an astrologer, who—empowered by demons (knowingly or not)—pretended through his ignorance to interpret their course across the night sky and explain how those movements relate to man and help predict a person’s future. Throughout his life King James was obsessed with witches and their demonic familiars, believing they were constantly plotting to kill him. As you can see with the study of demonology, timing is everything. It is fascinating that these two kings, separated by two thousand years of history, both list the names, abilities, and, in some cases, the physical attributes of the demons of which they spoke. They made, in essence, a very brief de monolo - Preface 1 gia, a dissertation on demons. And they were not alone: many others before and since have done the same. Of special note are the French judge and DEMONOGRAPHER Pierre de Rosteguy de Lancre, who conducted the witch hunts of 1609 under the order of King Henry the Eighth; Pierre Leloyers, who authored Discourse and Histories about Specters, Visions, and Apparitions, of Spirits, Angels, Demons, and Souls that appeared visibly to Men; and Johann Wierus, a Dutch demonologist and physician, who in his moral publications was among the first to speak out against the persecution of witches. He is also the author of the influential works De Praestigiis Daemonum et Incantationibus ac Venificiis and Pseudomonarchia Daemonum. It is not just in Christianity and Judaism that we find lists of demons and infernal servitors, but also Ashurism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Kemetic, Vodou, and Zoroastrianism. Demons appear in the mythologies and lore of virtually every ancient society, such as the ancient Africans, Assyrians, Chinese, Greek, Japanese, Mayans, Persians, Romans, and Scythians, to name just a few. Throughout my research I have pulled together as many of the named demons as I could find from all of the various cultures and religions. Research was conducted not only among books written about the history of ancient peoples and their cultures, but among religious texts as well. I compiled all of the information found for each demon, be it an individual entity or a particular species, then carefully condensed it to its bare and relevant facts, and wrote it up as a succinct description or synopsis. The goal was to present to the reader a concise account for each of these prominent demons. Entries were purposely kept short and precise, as there were almost three thousand diabolical personalities to commit to paper. There are a great number of books on the market that tell of individuals who claim to have been possessed by demons, as well as of people who admit to being able to drive infernal beings out of these afflicted souls. Personal beliefs in de monic possession, be it a spiritual or psychological condition, were not relevant to the writing of this reference book. The only concern was in naming those entities who are already considered relevant, especially those who played a part in the belief systems of the major religions. I did, however, consciously choose not to use any of the books that focused on the subject matter of demonic possession, especially those works written after what might be considered the New Age movement of the 1980s and after. This decision was based on the opinion that these cases and individuals have not yet proved to be either historically or mythologically relevant. Most of these may become the stuff of urban legends. Only time will tell. There are a handful of books that proved very useful. Gustav Davidson’s A Dictionary of Angels Including the Fallen Angels is a first- rate resource for anyone’s personal library. As the title indicates, it lists the angels who were driven out of Heaven during the Fall as well as those from Enochian lore, the Watcher Angels (see WATCHERS), who exorcized what can only be described as free will (a blessing man alone is alleged to have) and chose to leave of their own accord when they opted to take a human woman as a wife. This book also contains an impressive bibliography and a useful appendix with samples of angelic scripts, demonic seals and pacts (see DIABOLICAL SIGNATURE), the various names of LILITH, the unholy sephiroth, and a list of fallen angels (see FALLEN ANGELS). Francesso Maria Guazzo’s Compendium Maleficarum and Daemonologie by King James the First of England do not name the most demons but are essential in understanding how demons and witches are aligned and work against mankind. Two other books that list and describe demons are Fred Gettings’s Dictionary of Demons and Mack and Mack’s A Field Guide to Demons. References were chosen very selectively. Books like The Satanic Bible by Anton Szandor LaVey and the King James Bible had to be used sparingly because they are religious texts with content not only heavily flavored by opinion but also unver ifiable by other sources. A favorite book on demons was written by Wade Baskin, but it is often overlooked because of its sensationalized title: Satanism: A Guide to Preface 2 the Awesome Power of Satan. I prefer this book because it contains short, brief descriptions and definitions with no hyperbole, opinion, fictional characters (such as the demons from the John Milton poem Paradise Lost), or erroneous entries. It is brilliant in that it is straightforward, simple, and concise in its nature. As with my previous book, The Encyclopedia of Vampire Mythology, I document the sources from which information was taken, including page numbers (when given) so that it may be referenced by others. Also as before, I tried to use the oldest editions I could find by the most authoritative and reputable sources possible. Small caps are used to indicate to the reader words that may be cross- referenced as entries in the encyclopedia. In the back of this book is a complete bibliography of all the works cited as well as a large and thorough index. Some of the most knowledgeable people in the field of demonology have never been recognized for their contributions. It is fitting to acknowledge these scholars for their work in this field of study here: Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim, Steven Ashe, Wade Baskin, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Augustin Calmet, Joseph Campbell, Richard Cavendish, Robert Henry Charles, Jacques- Albin- Simon Collin de Plancy, Rosemary Ellen Guiley, Heinrich Kramer, Manfred Lurker, Anthony Master, Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, and Jacob Sprenger. Deep appreciation also goes to those who assisted with this undertaking: my beta- reader, Gina Farago; my husband, T. Glenn Bane; and especially my linguistic contributors, Yair A. Goldberg and June K. Williams. Without this dedicated cadre of individuals, this book would not have been possible.
This dictionary has been designed to provide easy access to the names of the demons, demonic systems and specialist terms which are encountered in occult, magical and demonological circles. Towards this end I have marshalled some 3000 demonic names, compiled largely from the main demonological traditions of the grimoires and the great literature in which demons have proliferated, such as the works of Dante, Milton and Blake. In order to throw some light on these names, I have also included entries on the main demonological literary traditions, such as the Enochian demons, and on the more important demonologists and specialists, ranging from Bodin to Blavatsky. Most of the demonic names and traditions examined in this dictionary are very ancient and it is therefore inevitable that certain demons crop up more than once in very different surroundings. For example, we find some of the same names in the lists of the Spirits of Solomon, ill the literature of the Enochian demons and in the Sanctum Regnum rituals, and this could hardly be otherwise. However, I have not restricted my researches to the official demonologies: I have tried also to give a bird's eye view of the importance which demons have in the more general tradition of English literature, noting the use to which a few named devils have been put in various plays and poems, and including also special entries on DEVIL PHRASES and QUOTATIONS relating to demonic lore in Ii tera ture. Although we have seen the demoting of the ancient gods, such as Baal, who was worshipped in the locality of Mount Peor and was later known as Bel-Poer in demon form, or the transformation of a Syrian word for money (mammon) into the name of a demon of materialism and avarice (see MAMMON), the history of demons has changed little in two thousand years. A graphic example of the tenacity of the ancient gods which survive into the latemedieval grimoires may be seen at a glance from a comparison of the symbolic crown of Egypt with the falcon head, which is emblematic of the god Horus, with the terrible demon king Maymon, who appears in many grimoires as a bird-headed monster. The name Maymon may be derived from the Syrian mammon, but it may also come from the Egyptian Amon, worshipped as a supreme god for millennia along the Nile. Less easy to grasp, however, is how the gentle unicorn, which rests its head in the lap of virgins, find its way into demonological lore? On the Horn ofUlf, which is preserved in York Minster museum, the unicorn has entered into the grimoires by virtue of being granted a demon-headed tail (see p.8). By the medieval period the unicorn was sometimes used to symbolize the demon Wrath among the Seven Deadly Sins. It is far easier to grasp how the bull-headed monster which Dante and Virgil encounter in Canto xii of Dante's Inferno or the bull-headed demon Morax was derived from the terrible Minotaur of Crete, which was painted on many Greek vases. The original Minotaur was dispatched by Theseus, but its spirit was adopted by Dante as one of his diabolic symbols. Because of the questions which attach themselves to such graphic problems it is clear that 5 Dictionary of Demons The symbolic crown of Egypt, incorporating the falcon head as emblem of Horus, the Sun Cod. The falcon may have originally been a tribal totem, but in later Egyptian symbolism the flight of the falcon represented the movement of the SUII as peiformed by a bird of light. According to Egyptiall mythology, Horus had two eyes, which were the SJln arId the Moon. It may have been this tradition which percolated in a debased form into the t~o-headed (and therefore, two-eyed) image of the demon Maymon 6 anyone who wishes to come to grips with the demonological tradition must have some grasp of its history. Many of the entries in this text are designed to help in this respect, for wherever possible I have included some mention of the main proponents of the more important beliefs and developments which have taken place in this realm since the early Christians turned the ancient gods into demons. It is difficult to generalize accurately about the demonisms which have obsessed (often quite literally) the mind of man during the past two thousand years. Because of this, the entries within this book are intended merely to point out main trends of history and to set out the distinctive, and even curious, attitudes which emerge time and time again in the periods under question. However, against the background of such distinctive and curious demonisms and beliefs we may observe a few historical constants. It is quite possible to trace throughout history a number of persistent attitudes to demons, a few constant beliefs about their natures, which might be termed the 'true history' of demonology. Among these are the seemingly universal notions that the demons are usually invisible, that they do not work by nature or by natural inclination for the good of man (indeed, they are usually inimical to man), that they may at times become visible to humans - sometimes by accident and sometimes by design - and that they may be raised, conjured and commanded. The notion that demons may also be exorcised, which is to say that they may be driven back to the invisible realm from which they originally came, is also one of the constantly held notions. However, the most fundamental of these communal beliefs is the one which insists that demons may be raised or conjured with a view to satisfying the specific desires or aims of the magician or his client. It is in this last belief that the seeds of the most insidious of all the medieval demonisms lie - the belief in demonic pact. These constant views are examined in the following text, with some reference to their historical contexts, under CONJURATION, EXORCISM and PACT. Something of the pagan view of demons may " be gleaned from the description given by Homer of how Od ysseus consulted the demons at Ephyra: the rites involved blood sacrifice and the spirits raised were essentially necromantic (actually sciomantic), though there does not appear to be any great differentiation made between the shades of the dead and the demons themselves. Odysseus was, of course, consulting these shades in order to peer into the future, and it seems to have been a basic belief in ancient times that demons could be raised in order to reveal their superior wisdom in many areas. The Roman rebuilding of the so-called necromanteion at Ephyra, with its complex of upper rooms and distinctive subterranean arched chamber (the very one specified by Homer and mentioned in several classical texts), has recently been rediscovered. Our notion of the classical demons is often Maymon , the great demoYlic king with two bird heads, is probably derived from the Egyptian totem falcon. The monstrous demon behind Maymon (which does not figure in the grimoire traditio/I) also has a face with resembles the profile of the Egyptian Jlod. From an early sixteenth-century grimoire Introduction bedevilled by the fact that there was a distinction drawn between the daemon and the demon, and this has led to confusions which persist even to this day. When Socrates referred to his daemon, he most certainly did not have in mind anything demonic in the modern sense of the word, no more than the astrological 'pars of Daimon' is linked with demonic lore. The confusion between the daemons, the demons, the angels and the intelligencies has persisted even into modern times. The demonism in the stories in The Golden Ass, told by the initiate-humorist Apuleius, already points to a strain of belief which was eventually to rack the medieval world: that the consultation of demons is essentially involved with witchcraft or, rather, that anyone who consults demons is on the edge of a dark and forbidden world. In the world of the Golden The Minotaur, after a Creek vase painting of the fifth century Be . The Minotaur, part bull, part man, was born of Pasiphae, who had disguised herself as a heifer. After the creation of this monster, Minos of Crete imprisoned it in his famous labyrinth where it was killed by Theseus 7 Dictionary of Demons Ass, witches seek the noses and ears of hanged men or murder for the sake of blood, and so on. Even in the first centuries of our era we find the same 'occult' paraphernalia in literature as we find in the Hammer movies of the twentieth century. The story of the man transformed into an ass, despite its esoteric undertones, was written for entertainment, however, and it must be remembered that the ass hero of the sto~y is driven by reasonably pure motives, for all his fear of what might happen to him if his transformation is discovered. Despite this kind ofliterature, however, there are indications that there was still a sort of The unicorn with a demonic tail, from the carving on the Horn of Ulf in York Minster museum, after the drawing used as a frontispiece to Robert Brown's study, The Unicorn - a Mythological Investigation (1881). The unicorn was a lunar creature and therefore well adapted to demonijication, as the realm of the demons was linked with the lunar sphere 8 priestcraft in the ancient world which knew how to raise demons, knew the specific qualities of individual demons and was intent on using this knowledge for therapeutic ends. Anyone unfamiliar with the therapeutic lore of the ancients might well regard the temple sleep or ritual incubation of the Aesclepeian hospitals and sanctuaries as being rooted in demonism, if only because it was involved with a serpent magic which is now little understood. However, esoteric lore indicates that these curious methods of healing were the results of a highly sophisticated system of beliefs derived from the ancient mystery centres. Such beliefs, perhaps now remembered in the symbol of the caduceus of intertwined snakes (see SERPENT), the emblem now of both commerce and medicine through its connection with fleet-footed Mercury, has survived in many other remarkable images which express a root belief in the healing power.
If you fear one thing in life, fear the djinn. This groundbreaking book presents the findings of Rosemary Ellen Guiley and Philip J. Imbrogno’s investigation into the powerful and mysterious interdimensional beings known as djinn or genies. It reveals what the djinn are, where they can be found—and their hidden agenda against the human race. Working with material compiled from a variety of sources—including their own case files, Middle Eastern lore, the Qur’an, teachings of Islamic scholars, and the latest theories in quantum physics—the authors explore the relationship between the djinn, demons, fairies, shadow people, and extraterrestrials. They discuss the military’s interest in these clandestine beings, offer eyewitness accounts of modern human encounters with the djinn, and reveal the location of interdimensional entry points in North America.
The Implementation of a Safe and Thorough Examination, Determination, and Exorcism of Demonic Possession
Author: John M. Duffey
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
In 1976, a twenty-three year old German girl, named Anneliese Michel, died following months of exorcism sessions. Despite the fact that she had been medically diagnosed with epilepsy and manic depressive psychosis, two priests conducted numerous exorcism sessions and ignored her mental, medical, and physical condition. Doctors would later state that her cause of death was starvation and dehydration. Unfortunately, Ms. Michel's tragic death due to misdiagnosed demonic possession and negligently applied exorcism was neither the first nor the last of such negligence to occur. Complete familiarity with the spiritual elements of demonical possession and attack is the sole focus of most demonologists, exorcists, and clerical members of Christianity. Few clerics have a sufficient understanding of psychiatric conditions that may mimic the symptoms of demonic possession. The result has been catastrophic for many innocent people over the centuries. The overlooking or ignoring of a person's medical and psychiatric condition is the primary culprit behind misdiagnosed possession and botched exorcisms resulting in death or serious bodily injury. Father John Duffey, a New American Catholic priest, exposes the truth behind the young girl's death and renders a standardized approach to properly investigating suspected demoniacal possession, determining the existence of possession, and in the safe execution of exorcism/deliverance acceptable to virtually all denominations of the Christian faith. This book brings psychology, medicine, faith, legality, and safety together for the first time in order to enhance evaluation accuracy, demonic expulsion, wellbeing for the afflicted, and safety for all involved parties.
This volume brings together some of the most exciting current scholarship on these themes. This interdisciplinary and geographically broad-ranging volume pays tribute to the ground-breaking work of Charles Zika.