This is a color album of London Buses concentrating mainly on the 1970s which was the first decade since London Transport's inception in 1933 to feature a large number of buses on London streets which were not painted in the mainly all-red (or in a few cases, all-green) livery with which people are familiar. Vehicles in the traditional London liveries have not been ignored but many of the pictures depict this remarkably colorful era and often against the backdrop of famous or historically interesting landmarks which the author has been able to describe. As far as is known, none of the photographs has been published before, and the vast majority were taken by one photographer, sadly now deceased, who had the foresight to compose his picture well. The author is a well-known London Bus enthusiast and this is his 34th transport book and second for Pen & Sword.
Kaplan's 6 Practice Tests for IELTS General Training provides printed exams and expert explanations for all four sections of the IELTS General Training test. Realistic practice questions, personalised performance reports, and test-like Listening tracks help you face the exam with confidence. The Most Practice Six full-length practice exams for the IELTS General Training test Practice questions with detailed answer explanations help you build your Listening, Reading, Speaking, and Writing skills Listening tracks for test-like practice online Online study plan with personalised score reports to identify your strengths and weaknesses so you can customise your study Expert Guidance Kaplan's expert psychometricians ensure our practice questions and study materials are true to the test. We invented test prep—Kaplan (www.kaptest.com) has been helping students for 80 years. Our proven strategies have helped legions of students achieve their dreams. Each year, hundreds of thousands of people in over 140 countries worldwide take the IELTS exam in order to demonstrate English-language proficiency. The exam, which tests listening, reading, writing, and speaking skills, is used for entrance into universities, nonacademic business settings, and as a part of immigration applications for permanent residence or citizenship in several English-speaking countries. The IELTS is an approved English-language test for U.S. and UK naturalization and visa applications.
A Decade of London Transport and London Country Operations
Author: Matthew Wharmby
The 1970s were among London Transport’s most troubled years. Prohibited from designing its own buses for the gruelling conditions of the capital, LT was compelled to embark upon mass orders for the broadly standard products of national manufacturers, which for one reason or another proved to be disastrous failures in the capital and were disposed of prematurely at a great loss. Despite a continuing spares shortage combined with industrial action, the old organisation kept going somehow, with the venerable RT and Routemaster families still at the forefront of operations. At the same time, the green buses of the Country Area were taken over by the National Bus Company as London Country Bus Services. Little by little, and not without problems of their own, the mostly elderly but standard inherited buses gave way to a variety of diverted orders, some successful others far from so, until by the end of the decade we could see a mostly NBC-standard fleet of one-man-operated buses in corporate leaf green.
The last three decades of the twentieth century saw dramatic changes in the bus industry with deregulation of bus services nationally in October 1986 in the provincial areas. Visually London seemed to stay the same with the buses still operating in the customary red liveries which all cherished from childhood. This book sets out to show how the vehicles moved forward from the traditional layout of rear platform and open half cab to the introduction of one man buses with their front entrances. The effects of deregulation are shown with dynamic color schemes especially with the Bexleybus blue and cream color scheme. With the passing of years we progress to the now familiar single deck buses, and also cover various other transport experiments.
Using photographs from Jim Blake's extensive archives, this book examines the turbulent period in the history of London's buses immediately after London Transport lost its Country Buses and Green Line Coaches to the recently-formed National Bus Company, under their new subsidiary company, London Country Bus Services Ltd. The new entity inherited a largely elderly fleet of buses from London Transport, notably almost 500 RT-class AEC Regent double-deckers, of which replacement was already under way in the shape of new AEC MB and SM class Swift single-deckers. London Transport itself was in the throes of replacing a much larger fleet of these. At the time of the split, it was already apparent that the 36ft-long MB class single-deckers were not suitable for London conditions, particularly in negotiating suburban streets cluttered with cars, and were also mechanically unreliable. The shorter SM class superseded them, but they were equally unreliable. January 1971 saw the appearance of London Transport's first purpose-built one-man operated double-decker the DMS class. All manner of problems plagued these, too. Both operators were also plagued with a shortage of spare parts for their vehicles, made worse by the three-day week imposed by the Heath regime in 1973-4. London Transport and London Country were still closely related, with the latter's buses continuing to be overhauled at LT's Aldenham Works. Such were the problems with the MB, SM and DMS types that LT not only had to resurrect elderly RTs to keep services going, but even repurchased some from London Country! In turn, the latter operator hired a number of MB-types from LT, now abandoned as useless, from 1974 onwards in an effort to cover their own vehicle shortages. Things looked bleak for both operators in the mid-1970s. This book contains a variety of interesting and often unusual photographs illustrating all of this, most of which have never been published before.
From Bohemian Rhapsody and David Bowie to Star Wars and Watergate, the history of an unforgettable era that rocked (and discoed) the world. The 1970s was one of the most exciting, innovative, and colorful decades of the twentieth century. It was ten years of major events in music (Freddie Mercury, The Sex Pistols, The Carpenters, and Blondie), film (Jaws, Dirty Harry, The Godfather, and Saturday Night Fever), television (The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Benny Hill, and The Waltons), and politics (Richard Nixon, Margaret Thatcher, and Jane Fonda). It was also a time of social change (the women’s movement and gay rights), and unforgettable nutty trends (orange shag carpets, bell bottoms, platform shoes, and wing-collared shirts). From home-life and fashions to entertainment, sports, headlining-making crimes, and pioneering new technologies, Remember the 70s is a fabulous record of a chaotic, pivotal, loud, and revolutionary era. For those who lived through it, and for those who just heard about it, historian Derek Tait (who came of age in it—and has the photos to prove it) offers fascinating insights, truths, and reflections into a dazzling pop-culture turning point that resonates to this day.