This volume was generated from papers presented at the Second Triennial Symposium of the International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS) held at the University of Victoria, British Columbia, July 21-23, 1986. The meeting was held as a satellite symposium following the XXX Congress of the International Union of Physiological Sciences at Vancouver. IBAGS was founded at a similar satellite symposium held in Lorne, Australia, organized by John S. McKenzie and sponsored by the University of Melbourne. The symposium held in Australia was attended by 50 scientists from 12 different countries. The results of the first symposium, edited by John S. McKenzie, Robert E. Kemm and Lynette N. Wilcock, were published by Plenum Press in 1984 under the title, The Basal Ganglia - Structure and Function. It was decided that the Society should meet on a triennial basis. The time and place for Second IBAGS Symposium were set by A.G. Phillips who served as Chairman of the Program Committee along with I. Divac, S.A. Greenfield and E.T. Rolls and J.S. McKenzie. Michael E. Corcoran of the Department of Psychology, University of Victoria served as the on-site coordinator and arranger for the Symposium. He was ably assisted by Ms. Morag McNeil who handled the details which made the meeting run smoothly.
The aim of the International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS) is to further our understanding of normal basal ganglia function and the pathophysiology of disorders of the basal ganglia, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia. Each triennial meeting of IBAGS brings together basic research scientists from all disciplines as well as clinicians who are actively involved in the treatment of basal ganglia disorders, to discuss the most recent advances in the field and to generate new approaches and ideas for the future. This volume comprises the proceedings of the 9th meeting of IBAGS, held in Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands, September 2nd-6th, 2007.
Handbook of Basal Ganglia Structure and Function, Second Edition, offers an integrated overview of the structural and functional aspects of the basal ganglia, highlighting clinical relevance. The basal ganglia, a group of forebrain nuclei interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, are involved in numerous brain functions, such as motor control and learning, sensorimotor integration, reward, and cognition. These nuclei are essential for normal brain function and behavior, and their importance is further emphasized by the numerous and diverse disorders associated with basal ganglia dysfunction, including Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, Huntington’s disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, dystonia, and psychostimulant addiction. This updated edition has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date account of this critical brain structure. Edited and authored by internationally acclaimed basal ganglia researchers, the new edition contains ten entirely new chapters that offer expanded coverage of anatomy and physiology, detailed accounts of recent advances in cellular/molecular mechanisms and cellular/physiological mechanisms, and critical, deeper insights into the behavioral and clinical aspects of basal ganglia function and dysfunction. Synthesizes widely dispersed information on the behavioral neurobiology of the basal ganglia, including advances in the understanding of anatomy, cellular/molecular and cellular/physiological mechanisms, and behavioral and clinical aspects of function and dysfunction Written by international authors who are preeminent researchers in the field Explores, in full, the clinically relevant impact of the basal ganglia on various psychiatric and neurological diseases
The Basal ganglia, to adopt a phrase of Churchill's, are "a riddle wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma." And although there is a wealth of information available on them, this research field remains controversial due in part to the diverse number of disciplines involved. A Theory of the Basal Ganglia and Their Disorders provides a clear, coherent view of basal ganglia that integrates evidence from the basic neurosciences, neurology, and psychiatry. The author explores the basal ganglia within a context of the function of the mammalian forebrain as a whole. Divided into two parts, the book explores the basic framework in which normal functions of the basal ganglia can be understood, and then moves on to discuss major disorders. It explains, as far as possible, symptoms and related clinical facts in terms of the underlying pathology and pathophysiology. With this goal in mind, the author includes only disorders of the basal ganglia for which there are already clear ideas about the underlying neuropathology or pathophysiology. He also conveys the human experience of these disorders as well as their scientific basis. While many books cover cutting-edge research, none have addressed large-scale questions about the role of the basal ganglia as a whole. Until now. This is arguably the only book published in the last 50 years that has attempted to provide an overall theory of the basal ganglia, as well as relevant areas of neurology and psychiatry. It concisely presents the theory, rather than comprehensively covering all the literature, and places the essential clinical facts within a framework formulated for normal operations of the basal ganglia. Presenting a unified view, the book takes several steps toward unraveling the riddle that is basal ganglia.
Part II starts with a systemic model of the basal ganglia to evaluate the position of the STN in the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways. A summary of in vitro studies is given, describing STN spontaneous activity as well as responses to depolarizing and hyperpolarizing inputs, and high frequency stimulation. STN bursting activity and the underlying ionic mechanisms are investigated. Deep brain stimulation used for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease is discussed in terms of the elements that are influenced and its hypothesized mechanisms. This part of the monograph pays attention to the pedunculopontine-subthalamic connections and tries in cell cultures to mimic neurotransmitter actions of the pedunculopontine nucleus and high frequency stimulation on cultured dissociated rat subthalamic neurons. STN cell models: single and multi compartment, and system level models are discussed in relation to subthalamic function and dysfunction. Part I and II are mutually compared.
The basal ganglia are involved in complex brain functions, from voluntary movement control to learning and reward processing, and they are implicated in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Information from the cerebral cortex and thalamus is conveyed to basal ganglia nuclei via glutamate release, while dopamine from the midbrain is released in close proximity to glutamate. At the heart of both function and dysfunction of basal ganglia circuits is the interaction of these two neurotransmitters, dopamine and glutamate. Elucidating the relationship between their molecular and cellular effects and behavioural significance has been challenging, but in the past 5–10 years, improved labeling, imaging, recording, and genetic manipulation approaches have yielded new information on how dopamine and glutamate interact to generate the circuit activity underpinning basal ganglia function. Dopamine–Glutamate Interactions in the Basal Ganglia synthesizes this recent research from the level of receptor molecules all the way to complex behaviours and disease. Current insights from research on individual neurons and synapses, detailed circuit analysis, and learning and action functions of the basal ganglia are presented against a historical perspective. The book also discusses compromised dopamine–glutamate interaction in disorders of basal ganglia function, including Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and drug addiction.
This volume, the sixth in the IBAGS series, summarizes major contributions in clinical and basic research on the basal ganglia. The sixth meeting of the Society was held on Cape Cod, in the state of Massachusetts, USA, in October, 1998. Altogether 16 countries were represented by 227 participants. This volume contains papers contributed by participants. The focus of the sixth triennial IBAGS meeting, and of this volume, was to bring to gether leaders in basic and clinical science to address two sets of still-persisting questions in the field. The first set focuses on the functions of the basal ganglia in health and disease: What are the core functions of the basal ganglia and cortico-basal ganglia loops? How are these core functions disrupted in disorders affecting the basal ganglia? How do we account for the broad range of behaviors affected by basal ganglia disorders and for the increasing evidence that the basal ganglia influence cognitive as well as motor functions? These issues are addressed in the first five sections of the current volume, which summarize advances in the study of basal ganglia disorders based on studies in humans (Section 1), new results obtained with experimental animal models of basal ganglia disorders (Section 2), results of experiments on information coding in the basal ganglia (Section 3) and new information about functions of the basal ganglia related to learning and adaptive motor control (Section 4).
This volume, The Basal Ganglia VII, is derived from the proceedings ofthe Seventh Triennial Meeting of the International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS). The Meeting was held from II - 15 February 2001 at The Copthorne Resort, Waitangi, Bay of Islands, New Zealand, the site of the signing of the Treaty ofWaitangi in 1840 and the traditional birth-place of the New Zealand Nation. As at previous Meetings, our aim was to hear and discuss new ideas and research developments on the basal ganglia and the implications of these findings for novel treatment strategies for basal ganglia disorders. The International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS) was founded in September 1983 when a small group of about 50 neuroscientists and clinicians with a passion for research on the basal ganglia met for a three day meeting in a small isolated seaside resort, Lome, 150km from Melbourne in Australia. The meeting was organised by John McKenzie and was so successful that the participants decided to establish IBAGS and to meet every 3 years at an isolated seaside resort in different countries of the world.
This volume represents the collected papers presented at the Third Triennial Symposium of the International Basal Ganglia society (IBAGS) held at Capo Boi, Italy, June 10-13, 1989. About 300 members of the society and participants attended the symposium which was held in a delightful environment conducive to the formal and informal exchange of scientific thought. The interdisciplinary nature of the symposium was unique in its coverage of the neurosciences from molecular biology to clinical and behavioural studies. The 80 papers collected here reflect the wide spectrum and the depth of studies on virtually all aspects of the basal ganglia. Unfortunately, this book does not capture the cordial and congenial atmosphere which has characterized this, and all prior symposia of the Society. Any cooperative endeavour of this kind requires a tremendous effort and dedication, usually by a small number of individuals. The Society is especially pleased to acknowledge the support and encouragement of the "Italian Ministry of university and Scientific Research" and the "Italian National. Research Council". In addition the society received financial support from numerous Foundations and corporations, which are listed separately under acknowledgements. Finally the Editors are pleased that Plenum Press, which has published the two previous symposia, has accepted this program for publication. It is our hope that vast scientific efforts reflected in these pages will be widely disseminated and further encourage every kind of research related to the basal ganglia.
Over the past 25 years the amount of data pertaining to the GABAergic function in the basal ganglia has increased dramatically. GABA and the Basal Ganglia - From Molecules to Systems is a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art of knowledge about the neuroanatomy, neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of the basal ganglia, focusing on its GABAergic microcircuitry. It serves as a complete reference to the body of knowledge about the basal ganglia, its constituent neurons, and their interconnections. This volume is designed to serve as a convenient all-in-one review and reference for experienced basal ganglia researchers as well as an introduction to the functional organization of the basal ganglia and its GABAergic circuitry for students and researchers new to the field. * Reviews the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the basal ganglia itself in addition to focusing on the GABAergic circuitry of the basal ganglia * Authors of each chapter leading internationally acclaimed experts in basal ganglia research
The Novartis Foundation Series is a popular collection of the proceedings from Novartis Foundation Symposia, in which groups of leading scientists from a range of topics across biology, chemistry and medicine assembled to present papers and discuss results. The Novartis Foundation, originally known as the Ciba Foundation, is well known to scientists and clinicians around the world.
This volume arose out of the symposium: "The Basal Ganglia: Structure and Function," held at the beginning of September 1983 as a satellite of the 29th International Congress of Physiological Sciences. The symposium took place at Lorne, a village on the ocean 150km south-west of Melbourne in a former holiday guest-house situated beside the beach. The sounds of surf and winter rain on the iron roof provided a background to the proceedings. The symposium was a happy and productive event, among a small group of participants from twelve countries, undistracted by any competing activities in the out-of-season period. Over three days, there were formal papers with lively discussion, as well as posters displayed continuously and available for comment during coffee and lunch breaks. The more philosophical views on the basal ganglia were aired at informal evening discussions after dinner. At the symposium banquet on the final night, the participants voted to form the International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS); Malcolm Carpenter was elected Foundation President, with Richard Faull as Organizing Secretary. The book comprises papers prepared by participants after returning home, so that they had opportunities for incorporating fruits of symposium discussions. Some anticipated contributors were finally unable to participate, and a few who presented data preferred not to submit papers for the book.
The aim of the International Meetings of the Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS) is to provide a unique environment for the open presentation and discussion of new and challenging information about the basal ganglia as it relates to health and disease, covering all areas of basic science and research. Specific topics of the proceedings of this Eighth International Triennial Meeting of the Basal Ganglia Society include behavior, circuitry, functional imaging, modelling, movement disorders, neuropathology, neurotransmitters, pharmacology, physiology, plasticity, treatments for basal ganglia disorders, ventral systems, health and disease, immunology and basal ganglia, and much more.
This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models. Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion of knowledge about the anatomical organization of the part of the brain known as the basal ganglia, the signal processing that occurs in these structures, and the many relations both to molecular mechanisms and to cognitive functions. This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models. Organized in four parts - fundamentals, motor functions and working memories, reward mechanisms, and cognitive and memory operations - the chapters present a unique admixture of theory, cognitive psychology, anatomy, and both cellular- and systems- level physiology written by experts in each of these areas. The editors have provided commentaries as a helpful guide to each part. Many new discoveries about the biology of the basal ganglia are summarized, and their impact on the computational role of the forebrain in the planning and control of complex motor behaviors discussed. The various findings point toward an unexpected role for the basal ganglia in the contextual analysis of the environment and in the adaptive use of this information for the planning and execution of intelligent behaviors. Parallels are explored between these findings and new connectionist approaches to difficult control problems in robotics and engineering. Contributors James L. Adams, P. Apicella, Michael Arbib, Dana H. Ballard, Andrew G. Barto, J. Brian Burns, Christopher I. Connolly, Peter F. Dominey, Richard P. Dum, John Gabrieli, M. Garcia-Munoz, Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic, Ann M. Graybiel, P. M. Groves, Mary M. Hayhoe, J. R. Hollerman, George Houghton, James C. Houk, Stephen Jackson, Minoru Kimura, A. B. Kirillov, Rolf Kotter, J. C. Linder, T. Ljungberg, M. S. Manley, M. E. Martone, J. Mirenowicz, C. D. Myre, Jeff Pelz, Nathalie Picard, R. Romo, S. F. Sawyer, E Scarnat, Wolfram Schultz, Peter L. Strick, Charles J. Wilson, Jeff Wickens, Donald J. Woodward, S. J. Young
Synthesizes our current knowledge of the anatomical and functional organization of the basal ganglia in various vertebrates. Offers a detailed account of the basal ganglia (or homolog) in representatives of each major group of nonmammalian vertebrates as well as in mammals. Presents reviews of the anatomical and functional organization of the core structures of the basal ganglia, and the relationship between the basal ganglia and limbic structure.
This volume is comprised of the majority of lecture presentations and a few select posters presented at the International Workshop, "Basal Ganglia and Thalamus in Health and Movement Disorders," held in Moscow, Russia, on May 29-31, 2000. The International Committee responsible for organizing this workshop included Alexander Konovalov, Director, Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Mahlon DeLong, Chair, Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, USA, Alim Louis Benabid, Chief, Neurosurgery Service, University of Joseph Fourrier, Grenoble, France, and the two undersigned. The workshop was conceived out of a desire to provide a forum for discussions of both basal ganglia-and motor thalamus-related issues by bringing together basic scientists and clinicians representing different disciplines, research directions, and philosophies. The primary goals were to encourage an exchange of information and ideas in an informal environment, to stimulate integration of the data from different disciplines, and to identifY controversial issues and the most essential questions to be addressed in future research.
Trophic Regulation of the Basal Ganglia: Focus on Dopamine Neurons examines neurotransmitters. The book first discusses the role of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and ganglioside GM1 and the trophic regulation of the basal ganglia. Biochemical and histochemical studies on the cellular localization of FGF-2; mapping of FGF-2 and its receptors in the basal ganglia postnatally and adulthood; and mapping of the ganglioside GM1 distribution in the basal ganglia are presented. The text also explains glucocorticoid and estrogen effects on the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems; factors associated to dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson's disease; and compensatory mechanisms at dopamine D-2 receptors. The book also describes the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on injured dopaminergic neurons; role of gangliosides and trophic factors in brain repair; and features of the trophic action of polyamines. The text also underscores the presence of interleukin-1 in the central nervous system; neuropeptides synthesis in astrocytes; and astrocytic kynurenines as modulators of dopaminergic function in the rat basal ganglia. The selection is a good source of information for readers wanting to study neurotransmitters.