"There has broken out and is now in progress a war which is generally regarded as the greatest of all time-a war already involving five of the six Great Powers and three of the smaller nations of Europe as well as Japan and Turkey..."So opens this second edition of the classic history published mere months after the first in 1914 and prompted by the rapidly devolving global political situation. Students of World War I and war reportage will find a stunning immediacy and a journalistic urgency in this recounting of a war that turned out to be but a mere skirmish preceding a much larger conflagration, told by a diplomat on the scene: the author, a former philosophy professor, served as U.S. minister to Greece and Montenegro during the Balkan Wars.AUTHOR BIO: JACOB GOULD SCHURMAN (1854-1942) was born on Prince Edward Island and educated in Britain and Germany, but spent much of his life in the service of government and education in the United States. In 1892, he was named Cornell University's third President, and during his 28-year tenure advanced the causes of academic freedom and intellectual liberalism. His wide-ranging diplomatic missions-embarked upon during his years as Cornell's president-took him around the globe to postings in the Pacific, Europe, and China.
In The Balkan Wars 1912-1913, Richard Hall examines the origins, the enactment and the resolution of the Balkan Wars, during which the Ottoman Empire fought a Balkan coalition of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia. The Balkan Wars of 1912 - 1913 opened an era of conflict in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century, which lasted until 1918, and which established a basis for problems which tormented Europe until the end of the century. Based on archival as well as published diplomatic and military sources, this book provides the first comprehensive perspective on the diplomatic and military aspects of the Balkan Wars. It demonstrates that, because of the diplomatic problems raised and the military strategies and tactics pursued to resolve those problems, The Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 were the first phase of the greater and wider conflict of the First World War.
For many countries in Europe, the early twentieth century was a maelstrom of conflict, as age-old alliances and feuds shifted and realigned in response to modernity, imperialism, colonialism, and myriad other variables. In this wide-ranging analysis of the Balkan Wars that erupted in 1912 and 1913 when Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, and Montenegro mounted a joint attack against the Ottoman Empire, historian Jacob Gould Schurman assesses the aftermath and implications, including the conflict's impact on the stirrings of turmoil that would later lead to the First World War.
The fuse to the First World War was lit in the Balkans where simmering hatreds exploded into violence. Like a string of firecrackers, these hatreds had been fuelled by attacks on the Turkish Ottoman Empire in the previous few years. From 1911-1912, Italy seized Libya. In 1912, the Balkan states united to drive Turkey out of Europe in the First Balkans War, and in the following year in the Second Balkans War, turned on each other in a division of the spoils which allowed Turkey to retain a foothold in Europe. This was a war of land campaigns, sea battles and amphibious operations in which the new military technology was first used. Submarine and aircraft attacked ships, aircraft made reconnaissance flights and bombed troops while even electronic warfare was used. It also saw mirror images of the events in the First World War; Bulgarians driven from Salonika where an Allied army would later be contained and Turkish troops held back in the Dardanelles, their guns driving off a naval task force. These now forgotten wars were the overture to the First World War and yet they have overtones a century later. The First World War saw echoes of these campaigns in Salonika and especially in the Dardanelles, while the ethnic tensions would erupt into further bloodshed after the Cold War ended as Yugoslavia collapsed during the 1990s.
In 1912, the Balkan states formed an alliance in an effort to break free from the crumbling Ottoman Empire. Forming an army of some 645,000 troops from Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenego, they took on a force of 400,000 Turkish soldiers. Both sides were equipped with the latest weapons technology. This book looks at the diverse and sometimes colourful uniforms worn by both sides, paying special attention to insignia, weapons and equipment. It also gives an overview of the campaigns that became a 'priming pan' of World War I.