Did the Freemasons consciously affect the geographical growth of the USA in order to invest the layout of the states with a deeper, symbolic meaning? The narrative concentrates on the development of Masonic ritual during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuriesOCoespecially their description of the ''ideal building'' or TempleOCothe concurrent construction of America and the role Freemasons played in it, and the emergence of a simple but highly symbolic mathematical formula that recurs regularly throughout the history of the Republic. Maps and diagrams illustrate the surprising coherence of the theory."
The Balyan Family and the History of Ottoman Architecture
Author: Alyson Wharton
The Balyan family were a dynasty of architects, builders and property owners who acted as the official architects to the Ottoman Sultans throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Originally Armenian, the family is responsible for some of the most famous Ottoman buildings in existence, many of which are regarded as masterpieces of their period – including the Dolmabahçe Palace (built between 1843 and 1856), parts of the Topkap? Palace, the Ç?ra?an Palace and the Ortaköy Mosque. Forging a unique style based around European contemporary architecture but with distinctive Ottoman flourishes, the family is an integral part of Ottoman history. As Alyson Wharton’s beautifully illustrated book reveals, the Balyan’s own history, of falling in and out of favour with increasingly autocratic Sultans, serves as a record of courtly power in the Ottoman era and is uniquely intertwined with the history of Istanbul itself.
Weimar Foreign Policy, German-Soviet Relations, and the Treaty of Rapallo, 1920-22 ; [research Paper]
Author: Pouyan Shekarloo
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Research Paper from the year 2010 in the subject History Europe - Germany - World War I, Weimar Republic, grade: 1, University of Washington (Department of History), course: Research Seminar in Modern European History, language: English, abstract: This paper does not aim to write a biography of Maltzan, nor does it claim to give a detailed account of his everyday business at the Auswartiges Amt. What brought these two countries with such contradictory political, economical, and societal systems together? Who was responsible in the German foreign policy elite, and what exactly was the role of Ago von Maltzan? Does agency belong to him alone? The sources at hand are just too scarce. This article rather tries to analyze German-Soviet relations from 1920 to 1922 and highlight Maltzan's role and involvement in the process of this relationship. Maltzan as a diplomat at the headquarters of the Auswartiges Amt was not always present in the public. He rather worked behind his desk or led backdoor negotiations with other diplomatic personnel. This paper will analyze German foreign policy towards Soviet Russia in the context of post-war European politics. It gives an analysis and interpretation of Maltzan's thoughts and ideas in analogy to political and diplomatic circumstances that occurred before and up to the Treaty of Rapallo. For the understanding of Maltzan, the history of German-Soviet relations is as important as the events that occurred at Rapallo.
An Elaborate Description of All the Public, Commercial, Philanthropic, Literary, & Ecclesiastical Buildings Already Constructed, and about to be Erected Next Spring in New York and Its Environs, with Their Cost Respectively, and the Names of the Architects and Builders
The United States is not a preternaturally inward-looking nation, and isolation is not the natural disposition of Americans. The real question is not whether Americans are prone to isolation or engagement, but how their engagement with the world has evolved, how events have made the United States a superpower, and how these developments have been guided by political leadership. Indeed, the great debates on foreign affairs in American history have not been about whether to have debates on foreign affairs; they have been between the competing visions of American influence in the world. In Architects of Power, Philip Terzian examines two public figures in the twentieth century who personify, in their lives, careers, and philosophies, the rise of the United States of America to global leadership: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower. Terzian reveals how both men recognized and acted on the global threats of their time and questions whether America can rise to the same challenges today. Without this clear window into the stricken world that Roosevelt inhabited and Eisenhower understood, we are unlikely to recognize the perils and challenges of the world we have inherited.
Architects and Architecture of London is a visual, highly illustrated guide to London's greatest historic buildings and the lives of the architects who designed them. The book is organised by architect, to provide an easy point of reference for today's designers and students and all those interested in the architectural history of London. Architects and Architecture of London illuminates the city's two thousand year architectural history, through the lives and works of historic architects who remain salient and significant in London's contemporary architectural geography.
Pompeu Fabra (1868-1948) is renowned as the person who reformed and codified modern Catalan, giving it the condition of a normativised language of culture that proved fit to meet all the challenges of the twentieth century. The context in which he worked was defined by the ideology and momentum of a dynamic Catalan nationalism emerging out of the nineteenth-century cultural revival movement, energies which have continued to affect politics in the Spanish state through to the present. The imposing corpus of Fabra's writings newspaper articles, lectures and papers, various grammars and the redaction of the official dictionary of Catalan covered all aspects of the normativisation and the social normalisation of a rejuvenated national language. His work was, moreover, abreast of the most advanced developments in the newly emerging discipline of modern linguistics.The present volume was conceived in response to expressions of disappointment that the figure and the intellectual contributions of Pompeu Fabra have remained virtually unrecognised internationally. Some rectification of this situation is offered by this first ever translation into English of a representative selection of his writings, accompanied by the first substantial study on him in that language. In this way his work should be made much more accessible to the international community of linguists and of specialists in various branches of the social sciences, for whom Fabra's exclusive dedication to Catalan retains great relevance.