Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell–Boltzmann, Fermi–Dirac, Bose–Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin–Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose–Einstein condensation. This revised second edition contains an additional chapter on the Boltzmann transport equation along with appropriate applications. Also, more examples have been added throughout, as well as further references to literature.
In this book, the thermodynamic observables of the classical one- and two-dimensional ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic Ising models on a square lattice are simulated, especially at the phase transitions (if applicable) using the classical Monte Carlo algorithm of Metropolis. Finite size effects and the influence of an external magnetic field are described. The critical temperature of the 2d ferromagnetic Ising model is obtained using finite size scaling. Before presenting the Ising model, the basic concepts of statistical mechanics are recapped. Furthermore, the general principles of Monte Carlo methods are explained.
The thermodynamic observables of the classical one– and two–dimensional ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic Ising models on a square lattice are simulated, especially at the phase transitions (if applicable) using the classical Monte Carlo algorithm of Metropolis. Finite size effects and the influence of an external magnetic field are described. The critical temperature of the 2d ferromagnetic Ising model is obtained using finite size scaling.
proceedings of the international symposium held in Freiburg, Germany, 17-18 October 1991
Author: R. Grisar
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub
Monitoring of Gaseous Pollutants by Tunable Diode Lasers is divided into four sections: I -- Atmospheric Trace Gas Detection; II -- Diode Lasers and Their Properties, including Progress in IV-VI Physics and Optoelectronic Devices; III -- Techniques, Systems, Components; IV - Special Applications. Atmospheric trace gas detection was of central interest, and the presentations clearly demonstrate the impressive capabilities of the diode laser technique. Reports on IV-VI mid-infrared diode lasers stress those properties -- radiation noise and emission linewidth -- which are essential for application to ultra-high sensitivity pollution monitoring. Two reports on III-V systems emitting at wavelengths shorter than 3 mum show that the less severe cooling requirements can lead to more compact equipment which can be used to detect pollutants via overtone absorption bands. The presentations on IV-VI physics and devices stress the physical and technological aspects of mid-infrared diode lasers. Laterally structured diode lasers are discussed in detail. There is also extensive material which compares traditional AM and the more recent FM techniques. The reports on special applications point to new directions for research, thus rounding off a complete, expert discussion of a vital research area.
Concentrating on the main phenomena in a spatial scale of about 2-20nm and their relations in both space and time, the author gives a comprehensive review for all newcomers in the rapidly growing field of the relaxation and thermodynamics of polymers.
Band IV, Teil II: 1953–1954 / Volume IV, Part II: 1953–1954
Author: Wolfgang Pauli
Aus Paulis letztem Lebensjahrzehnt sind über 2000 Briefe erhalten und in diesem grundlegenden Werk zur Physikgeschichte der Nachkriegszeit zusammengefaßt. Neben der Physik wird hier auch der allgemeinere geistesgeschichtliche Hintergrund unserer Naturwissenschaft beleuchtet. Dieser Teilband enthält wissenschaftliche Korrespondez über grundlegende und andere allgemeine Fragen der Physik der 50er Jahre: Elementarteilchen, Erkenntnistheorie und Quantenfeldtheorie. Im besonderen wird hier die Geschichte der frühen Quantenfeldtheorie beleuchtet. Die reich annotierten und kommentierten Briefe sind chronologisch angeordnet und durch Verzeichnisse und Register erschlossen. From the last decade of Paulis life, more than 2000 of his letters have survived. Together they represent a remarkable contribution to the history of post-war physics. In addition to discussing questions of physics they provide illuminating insights into debates on the philosophical and human components of the history of science. This part of Volume IV contains scientific correspondence on foundational and other general problems of physics in the 1950s: elementary particles, epistemology, and quantum field theory. In particular, one can clearly trace the development of the early quantum field theory. Generous annotations and commentary accompany the letters, which are ordered chronologically and listed in registers and an index for easy access.