A Guide to the Use of Statistical Methods in the Physical Sciences
Author: R. J. Barlow
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A.C. Phillips Computing for Scientists R. J. Barlow and A. R. Barnett Written by a physicist, Statistics is tailored to the needs of physical scientists, containing and explaining all they need to know. It concentrates on parameter estimation, especially the methods of Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood, but other techniques, such as hypothesis testing, Bayesian statistics and non-parametric methods are also included. Intended for reasonably numerate scientists it contains all the basic formulae, their derivations and applications, together with some more advanced ones. Statistics features: * Comprehensive coverage of the essential techniques physical scientists are likely to need. * A wealth of examples, and problems with their answers. * Flexible structure and organisation allows it to be used as a course text and a reference. * A review of the basics, so that little prior knowledge is required.
The ninth Advanced Study Institute (AS!) on Techniques and Concepts of High Energy Physics was almost canceled before ifbegan! A certain visitor to the area (Hurricane Bertha) arrived unexpectedly early in 1996. It was the first hur ricane in memory to menace the Caribbean in early July! Fortunately, it passed St. Croix several days before our meeting, and left very little damage. (The Altar ellis survived the eye of the storm in the in the British West Islands!) The meeting was held once again at the hotel on the Cay, on that spec of land in the harbor ofChrirtiansted, St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. After the first two days of, at times, outrageous downpour, the 71 participants from 26 coun tries began to relax and enjoy the lectures and the lovely surroundings of the In stitute. The primary support for the meeting was provided by the ~cientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The ASI was cosponsored by the U. S. department of Energy, by the Fermi National Accelera tor Laboratory (Fermi-lab), by the U. S. National Science Foundation, and by the University of Rochester. In addition, the International Science Foundation con tributed to the support of a participant from Russia. As in the case of the previous ASIs, the scientific program was designed for advanced graduate students and recent Ph. D. recipients in experimental parti cle physics.
Over the last decade, statisticians have developed new statistical tools in the field of spatial point processes. At the same time, observational efforts have yielded a huge amount of new cosmological data to analyze. Although the main tools in astronomy for comparing theoretical results with observation are statistical, in recent years, cosmologists have not been generally aware of the developments in statistics and vice versa. Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution describes both the available observational data on the distribution of galaxies and the applications of spatial statistics in cosmology. It gives a detailed derivation of the statistical methods used to study the galaxy distribution and the cosmological physics needed to formulate the statistical models. Because the prevalent approach in cosmological statistics has been frequentist, the authors focus on the most widely used of these methods, but they also explore Bayesian techniques that have become popular in large-scale structure studies. Describing the most popular methods, their latest applications, and the necessary mathematical and astrophysical background, this groundbreaking book presents the state of the art in the statistical description of the large-scale structure of the Universe. Cosmology's well-defined and growing data sets represent an important challenge for the statistical analysis, and therefore for the statistics community. Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution presents a unique opportunity for researchers in both fields to strengthen the connection between them and, using a common language, explore the statistical description of the universe.
At the heart of every medical imaging technology is a sophisticated mathematical model of the measurement process and an algorithm to reconstruct an image from the measured data. This book provides a firm foundation in the mathematical tools used to model the measurements and derive the reconstruction algorithms used in most of these modalities. The text uses X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) as a 'pedagogical machine' to illustrate important ideas and its extensive discussion of background material makes the more advanced mathematical topics accessible to people with a less formal mathematical education. This new edition contains a chapter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a revised section on the relationship between the continuum and discrete Fourier transforms, an improved description of the gridding method, and new sections on both Grangreat's formula and noise analysis in MR-imaging. Mathematical concepts are illuminated with over 200 illustrations and numerous exercises.
Proceedings of a Conference Held at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA, 12-15 June 2006
Author: Gutti Jogesh Babu
Publisher: Astronomical Society of the pacific
"This is the fourth in a series of international conferences for the vanguard of researchers in the cross-disciplinary field of astrostatistics. Both astronomical and statistical communities now recognize the wide array of fascinating methodological issues faced by the modern astronomer. Ranging from terabyte wide-field surveys to small-N samples, from cosmology to the search for Earth-like planets, astronomical research can no longer be pursued with a small toolbox of familiar statistical methods. Over thirty distinguished scholars from both fields presented invited talks and commentaries on leading problems in astrostatistics. The methodological challenges of inferring cosmological insights from the cosmic microwave background fluctuations, the distribution of galaxies in space, gravitational lensing, and galaxy structure wre describe in detail. Time series analysis is discussed in a variety of contexts: sparse Poisson data, multiply-periodic systems, gravitational wave detection, and most dramatically in the search for extrasolar planets. Here sophisticated Bayesian model selection with MCMC computations plays a critical role. Other topics covered include image processing, analysis of mega-datasets from large surveys, and small-N problems in both astronomy and particle physics. The volume ends with cross-disciplinary overviews and software tutorials. The book will be valuable to graduate students and researchers in both astronomy and statistics who seek insights into this promising avenue of cross-disciplinary research."--Publisher's website.