Higher levels of the state can catalyze the development effectiveness of local administrations and communities, forming alliances with them and improving development outcomes while also gaining legitimacy and popular support. With creative political thinking it is possible to effect rapid change even in poor institutional settings.
Participatory approaches that involve local communities in their own development have gained substantial support among international donors over the past quarter-century and have become increasingly important in the work of the World Bank. Community participation is an approach to development that can be used with any Bank lending instrument and across sectors. Projects can involve communities in different ways--by sharing information, consulting, collaborating, or empowering them. The process of involving communities in project activities is also expected to contribute in most cases to communi.
The establishment of good governance is a major challenge for the developing world, along with the need to sustain the progress resulting from developmental efforts. Although there are numerous studies on the development and governance of emerging nations, few volumes make a serious effort to bring together these two critical concepts. International Development Governance combines the two concepts - development and governance - by examining the issues and problems faced by nations in their attempts to establish sustainable governance. This textbook also initiates discussions on the concept of development governance in an international context. The book fills the gap in existing literature by drawing upon the experience and expertise of scholars from a broad spectrum of knowledge. Their views explain the issues and problems with reference to a number of tools that could establish "development governance" and sustain it. The text offers in-depth examinations of developmental sectors, resulting in a textbook that will inspire future public officials, policy makers, and consultants to contribute to the betterment of life for citizens of developing countries.
Emerging Lessons from Post-Conflict and Fragile Situations
Publisher: OECD Publishing
The second volume of the Partnership for Democratic Governance Series investigates whether ‘contracting out’ core government functions and services has been conducive to capacity development. Case studies discusses the evidence and emerging lessons of contracting out.
Sociology of Health, contains empirical and theoretical articles that apply sociological concepts and methods to the understanding of health and illness and the organization of medicine and healthcare. Further the articles also try to explore the understanding of the process by which social practices and human health are related.
Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have achieved considerable economic growth, yet the region still faces many seemingly intractable problems. The conventional wisdom in development agencies - that prioritization is impossible and that everything must be done - is simply not effective. Latin American Development Priorities shows how limited resources could be used for the greatest benefit of the Latin American and Caribbean region. A panel of economists met over three days in San José to review proposals to tackle the ten most important challenges, which emerged from a survey by the Inter-American Development Bank. The expert panel was asked a question which appears simple but is actually very difficult to answer: What should Latin American governments do with an additional nominal $10 billion? Hard choices are needed if Latin America's problems are to be tackled effectively. This book provides the means to make those choices as objectively as possible.
This edited collection brings together enterprising pieces of new research on the many forms of organization in East and Southeast Asia that are sponsored or mandated by government, but engage widespread participation at the grassroots level. Straddling the state-society divide, these organizations play important roles in society and politics, yet remain only dimly understood. This book shines a spotlight on this phenomenon, which speaks to fundamental questions about how such societies choose to organize themselves, how institutions of local governance change over time, and how individuals respond to and make use of the power of the state. The contributors investigate organizations ranging from volunteer-based organizations that partner with government in providing services for homeless children, to state-managed networks of neighborhood- or village-level associations that perform representative as well as administrative functions and seeks to answer a number of questions: When do the "vertical," top-down imperatives of the state stifle "horizontal" solidarities, and when might the two work in harmony? Are useful social and administrative purposes served by this type of fusion? Does it amplify or merely muffle citizens’ voices? What does it tell us about existing accounts of community, social capital, "synergy," "complementarity," "subsidiarity," and related concepts? Representing seven countries: China, Japan, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Singapore this volume will be of interest to undergraduates, postgraduates and academics in Asian studies, political science, sociology, anthropology, development, history, nonprofit studies.
This book analyses the role of the European Union in the process of institutional change in its Eastern neighbourhood and explains why EU policies arrive at contradictory outcomes at the sectoral level. Combining EU studies approaches with insights from the fields of new institutionalism, international development studies and transnationalisation, it explains how the EU policies contribute to rule persistence or lead to institutional change. Highlighting the importance of investigating how the policies of external intervention interact with domestic institutions, the book also provides a coherent presentation of the political and economic problems of Ukraine and Moldova and a comparative analysis in key areas at critical junctures of their development. This book will be of key interest to scholars and students of European Union politics and more broadly to International Relations, post-Soviet and Russian studies.
Empirical results from India suggest that politicians exert greater effort in managing public works during election years. Surprisingly, there is no evidence of a populist spending spree to sway voters just before elections.
Concepts and Tools for Decision-makers in Developing and Transitioning Countries
Author: Derick W. Brinkerhoff
Publisher: Kumarian Press
Category: Business & Economics
* A toolbox for designing, managing, and influencing policy reform in government and civil society * Based on experience in over 40 countries This comprehensive book provides concepts and tools to navigate the "how" of policy change in order to enhance democratic governance. It teaches decision-makers how to implement policy more effectively and increase performance feasibility of these reforms. The research--part of the USAID Implementing Policy Change Project--stems from work with government officials, private sector entrepreneurs, and civil society groups, from regional to national and local levels in over 40 countries. The book includes dynamic tools for designing, managing, and influencing policy reforms in government, donor agencies, NGOs, civil society groups, and the private sector.
The principle underlying trends in Bank education projects is that strengthening the private sector's role in noncompulsory education over time will release public resources for the compulsory (primary) level. The public and private sectors have complementary roles to play.
This publication is a compilation of reports on research projects initiated, under way, or completed in fiscal year 2001 (July 1, 2000 through June 30, 2001). The abstracts cover 150 research projects from the World Bank and grouped under 11 major headings including poverty and social development, health and population, education, labor and employment, environment, infrastructure and urban development, and agriculture and rural development. The abstracts detail the questions addressed, the analytical methods used, the findings to date and their policy implications. Each abstract identifies the expected completion date of each project, the research team, and reports or publications produced.
Decentralization, Democratization, and the Promise of Good Governance
Author: Merilee S. Grindle
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Political Science
Many developing countries have a history of highly centralized governments. Since the late 1980s, a large number of these governments have introduced decentralization to increase democracy and improve services, especially in small communities far from capital cities. In Going Local, an unprecedented study of the effects of decentralization on thirty Mexican municipalities, Merilee Grindle describes how local governments respond when they are assigned new responsibilities and resources under decentralization policies. She explains why decentralization leads to better local governments in some cases--and why it fails to in others. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods, Grindle examines data based on a random sample of Mexican municipalities--and ventures into town halls to follow public officials as they seek to manage a variety of tasks amid conflicting pressures and new expectations. Decentralization, she discovers, is a double-edged sword. While it allows public leaders to make significant reforms quickly, institutional weaknesses undermine the durability of change, and legacies of the past continue to affect how public problems are addressed. Citizens participate, but they are more successful at extracting resources from government than in holding local officials and agencies accountable for their actions. The benefits of decentralization regularly predicted by economists, political scientists, and management specialists are not inevitable, she argues. Rather, they are strongly influenced by the quality of local leadership and politics.
At the start of each decade the World Development Report focuses on poverty reduction. The World Development Report, now in its twenty-third edition, proposes an empowerment-security-opportunity framework of action to reduce poverty in the first decades of the twenty-first century. It views poverty as a multidimensional phenonmenon arising out of complex interactions between assets, markets, and institutions. This Report shows how the experience of poverty reduction in the last fifteen years has been remarkably diverse and how this experience has provided useful lessons as well as warnings against simplistic universal policies and interventions. It shows how current global trends present extraordinary opportunities for poverty reduction but also cause extraordinary risks, including growing inequality, marginalization, and social explosions. The World Development Report 2000/2001 explores the challenge of managing these risks in order to make the most of the opportunities for poverty reduction.
For the nearly three decades of coexistence between economic liberalization and political authoritarianism, China remains as an anomaly to the liberal mantra of our time. This book explores a segment of the China Paradox, the state-society interaction channeled by the Residents Committee. Being the largest urban neighborhood organization, the committee deserves study because of its controversial status between ordinary residents it claims to represent and the authoritarian state. The committee enters the discourse as a directly congruent example of the same paradox that the whole China displays, when it is endowed with important, yet tension-changed statutory functions ranging from social control to service provision and neighborhood self-governance. How, and under what conditions, does the committee carry out its functions? What can be learned about changing state-society relations from the dynamics of neighborhood politics in China? This book draws its analytical framework on the theoretical models of state penetration, civil disobedience, corporatism, and synergy, as well as on the practices of American, Cuban, and Japanese neighborhood organizations and the Chinese Rural Villagers Committee. Four distinctive Residents Committees in Tianjin City are studied in detail, and their functions are identified and explained primarily through their structural connections with the lowest state organ in cities, the street office, and residents (including other neighborhood organizations and activists). The book reveals multiple possibilities of Chinese social/political transformation. Among them emerges a promising trend of state-society cooperation, which is realigning and accommodating political authoritarianism and economic openness into a seemingly sustainable pattern of development at the urban grassroots. Referred to as an "amphibian" organization spanning public-private division, the committee highlights the limits of the state-society antithesis in the study of political transformation. The observed patterns of neighborhood politics also raise caution against the universal applicability of the liberal norm of civil society to countries like China with distinctive conditions from which the original norm is present and constructed.
The Politics of Citizen Participation in New Democratic Arenas
Author: Andrea Cornwall
Publisher: Zed Books
Category: Social Science
This book provides a clear and comprehensive introduction to the developments which have brought about a new, global wave of inclusiveness and democracy. From Brazil to Bangladesh, a new form of participatory politics is springing up. Featuring contributions detailing how such movements have worked in Latin America, Europe and Africa, the book analyzes the impact they have had on the democratic process. By opening up the political sphere in this way, the authors contend, these grassroots movements truly have created "spaces for change".