The basic concepts behind sizing systems currently used in the manufacture of ready-to-wear garments were originally developed in the 19th century. These systems are frequently based on outdated anthropometric data, they lack standard labelling, and they generally do not accommodate the wide variations of body sizes and proportions that exist in the population. However, major technological improvements have made new population data available worldwide, with the potential to affect the future of sizing in many ways. New developments in computer-aided design and sophisticated mathematical and statistical methods of categorizing different body shapes can also contribute to the development of more effective sizing systems. This important book provides a critical appreciation of the key technological and scientific developments in sizing and their application. The first chapter in the book discusses the history of sizing systems and how this has affected the mass production of ready-to-wear clothing. Chapters two and three review methods for constructing new and adapting existing sizing systems, and the standardisation of national and international sizing systems. Marketing and fit models are reviewed in chapter four whilst chapter five presents an analysis of the grading process used to create size sets. Chapters six and seven discuss fit and sizing strategies in relation to function, and the communication of sizing. Mass customization and a discussion of material properties and their affect on sizing are addressed in chapters eight and nine. Military sizing and the aesthetics of sizing are detailed in chapters ten and eleven. The final chapter reviews the impact on sizing of production systems and specifications. Written by an international team of contributors, this book is an essential reference to researchers, designers, students and manufacturers in the clothing and fashion industry. Provides a critical appreciation of key technological and scientific developments in sizing and their application Discusses how developments in sizing affect the mass production of ready to wear clothing Reviews methods of constructing new and adapting existing sizing systems
Anthropometry, Apparel Sizing and Design, Second Edition, reviews techniques in anthropometry, sizing system developments, and their applications to clothing design. The book addresses the need for the improved characterization of population size, weights and the shapes of consumers. This new edition presents the very latest advances, and is expanded to include in-depth coverage of sizing and fit for specific groups and applications. Sections cover the development of sizing systems, classification and body types, the use of anthropometric data, body measurement devices and techniques, including 3D scanners for the full body and for particular body parts, 4D scanning technology and motion analysis. Additional sections cover testing and the evaluation of fit and anthropometric sizing systems for particular functions, thus reflecting the increasing need for apparel to meet specific needs, such as in swimwear, protective clothing, mobility, intimate apparel, footwear and compression garments. This book will be an essential reference source for apparel designers, manufacturers, retailers and merchandisers. Its detailed information and data will also be of great interest to researchers and postgraduate students across clothing technology, product design, fashion and textiles. Reviews methods and techniques in anthropometry, sizing system development, and applications in clothing design Enables users to understand and utilize detailed anthropometric data Covers sizing and fit for particular uses, including protective clothing, compression garments, intimate apparel and footwear
One of the greatest challenges for the apparel industry is to produce garments that fit customers properly. Anthropometry, Apparel Sizing and Design addresses the need for improved characterization of our populations in order to tailor garments according to size, weight, and shape of consumers. This book reviews techniques in anthropometry, sizing system developments, and their applications to clothing design. Part one considers a range of anthropometric methods. The text discusses the range of sizing systems, including data mining techniques, useful for bridging the gap between ergonomists and designers. Chapters examine three-dimensional anthropometric methods and multivariate and bivariate analysis for identifying key body dimensions. Part two then explains how to analyze anthropometric data to develop appropriate sizing systems. Here, the book discusses classification and clustering of human body shapes, the importance of national surveys, and using the data obtained to ensure inclusive design strategies. The book covers sizing systems developed for particular groups, apparel size designation, and the potential for international standardization. It considers the advantages of 3D body scanning and computer-aided design, and the use of body motion analysis to address ease allowance requirements of apparel. With its distinguished editors and international contributors, this work is an essential reference, particularly due to the specific combination of aspects of anthropometry and the sizing of clothing, for researchers, garment designers, students, and manufacturers in the clothing and fashion industry. Reviews techniques in anthropometry, sizing system developments, and their applications to clothing design Examines 3D anthropometric methods and multivariate and bivariate analysis for identifying key body dimensions Covers sizing systems developed for particular groups, apparel size designation, and the potential for international standardization
Wear comfort has been listed as the most important property of clothing demanded by users and consumers according to recent studies. A fundamental understanding of human comfort and a knowledge of how to design textiles and garments to maximise comfort for the wearer is therefore essential in the clothing industry. Improving comfort in clothing reviews the latest developments in the manufacturing of comfortable apparel and discusses methods of improving it in various articles of clothing. The book begins by outlining the fundamentals of human comfort in clothing, from the human perception of comfort in apparel and factors which affect it such as the properties of fibres and fabrics, to laboratory testing, analysing and predicting of the comfort properties of textiles. Part two discusses methods of improving comfort in apparel, from controlling thermal comfort and managing moisture, to enhancing body movement comfort in various garments. Part three reviews methods of improving comfort whilst maintaining function in specific types of clothing such as protective garments, sports wear and cold weather clothing The international team of contributors to Improving comfort in clothing has produced a unique overview of numerous aspects of clothing comfort, provides an excellent resource for researchers and designers in the clothing industry. It will also be beneficial for academics researching wear comfort. Reviews the latest developments in the manufacturing of comfortable apparel and discusses methods of improving fit in various articles of clothing An overview of how to design textiles and garments to maximise comfort begins with factors affecting comfort and properties of fibres and fabrics that contribute to human comfort Improvements in thermal and tactile comfort and moisture management are explored featuring developments in textile surfaces
Clothing for Children and Teenagers: Anthropometry, Sizing and Fit addresses the complexities of developing size specifications for clothing aimed at seven to seventeen year olds. Children and teenagers experience rapid physical growth and alterations in body shape as they develop—changes that pose significant challenges in creating apparel sizing systems. The book begins by introducing the principles of apparel fit and sizing systems. Drawing on the author’s own fieldwork, it goes on to discuss methods of conducting anthropometric surveys in children and teenagers, and techniques for analyzing the resulting data in order to produce successful sizing systems. Introduces the principles of apparel fit and sizing systems, and discusses methods of conducting anthropometric surveys in children and teenagers Offers systematic and comprehensive coverage of the complexities associated with clothing for children and teenagers Reviews techniques in analysis and classification of children and teenagers' body shapes and sizes Covers the development, designation, and validation of an apparel sizing system for children and teenagers
Fashion and beauty have helped shape history and today more than ever, we find ourselves under increasing pressure to think about what we wear, what we look good in and how best to enhance our body shape and size. Behind this seemingly superficial industry, however, lies a technical thinking firmly grounded in science and technology. In one fully comprehensive book, Clothing appearance and fit: Science and technology provides a critical appreciation of the technological developments and scientific understanding of the appearance and fit of clothing. The authors bridge the science of beauty and fashion design with garment evaluation technology, garment drape and human anthropometrics and sizing. The ten chapters of the book provide a detailed coverage of clothing appearance and fit. Chapter 1 considers body attractiveness and how it relates to clothing material and design parameters and discusses classical and contemporary theories of beauty. Chapters 2 and 3 present the industry’s techniques, methods and standards for assessing clothing appearance and fit and Chapters 4 and 5 review the research and development of objective measurement technologies for evaluating clothing appearance and fit. Fabric objective measurement, fabric properties and garment drape are covered in Chapters 6 and 7 and the R & D of body measurement, anthropometrics and sizing systems are detailed in Chapters 8 and 9. The final chapter reviews published work on garment design and pattern alteration for achieving good clothing appearance and fit. This book is an essential reference for researchers, academics, professionals and students in clothing and textile academia and industry. It includes many industrial standards, techniques and practices. Offers a critical appreciation of technological developments Incorporates user-friendly illustrations and photographs Valuable reference for students, researchers and professionals in the clothing and textile industries
11th International Conference, DaWaK 2009 Linz, Austria, August 31-September 2, 2009 Proceedings
Author: Torben Bach Pedersen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery, DaWak 2009 held in Linz, Austria in August/September 2009. The 36 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 124 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on data warehouse modeling, data streams, physical design, pattern mining, data cubes, data mining applications, analytics, data mining, clustering, spatio-temporal mining, rule mining, and OLAP recommendation.
This report examines the relationship between the clothing sizes and the size labeling given in the garments, and how the consumers experience it. The research is based on three different sources: a consumer survey, clothing size measurements in shops and in-depth interviews. The data is collected from three Nordic Countries; Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The size measurement results and the survey answers indicate that sizing systems are confusing and full of disparities. The European committee for standardization is developing a common European size code for garments, but they have experienced problems in reaching a system that indicates the sizes accurately, but still does not get too long and complicated for the consumers to understand or for the manufactures to use. A common and well-functioning size labeling system would be an advantage to many consumers, in particular to groups who find the size labeling insufficient, and for the consumers that are not able to try on clothes in the stores themselves. We also hope that a better understanding of the relationship between bodies, clothes and size labeling will be useful in future discussions, due to the growing focus on body and dieting, as well as the increased weight of the population. And finally, a diminishing number of mistake purchases will be beneficial for the environment as it decreases the disposal of textiles.
For courses in Introduction to Fashion and Fashion Merchandising. This acclaimed text provides a strong, multidisciplinary foundation for individual and family clothing choices as it balances theory with actual applications. The authors present a broad base of knowledge at an introductory level for students' general education unlike other texts, which focus more narrowly on the needs of fashion majors only. Packed with activities, learning objectives, illustrations, and photographs, this user-friendly book meets the needs of future fashion professionals as well as students taking a single fashion course.
Given its importance for consumer satisfaction and thus brand success, apparel fit is a major challenge for retailers and brands across the industry. Consequently there have been major developments in sizing research and how it can be used in apparel design. This book reviews how these developments are affecting clothing design for different groups of consumers. Part one identifies various aspects of body shape, size, volume and the psychological aspects of designing apparel. This section covers topics such as body shape and its influence on apparel size and consumer choices, sizing systems, body shape and weight distribution (with a discussion of the Body Volume Index (BVI) versus the Body Mass Index (BMI)), and the psychological and sociological factors influencing consumers’ choice of apparel. Part two outlines the challenges in understanding the sizing and shape requirements and choices of particular customer groups. This section discusses apparel designed for infants and children, older consumers, overweight and obese consumers, plus size Black and Latino women, apparel design for Asian and Caucasian ethnic groups, sizing requirements for male apparel, maternity apparel, intimate apparel for varying body shapes, and the challenges of designing headwear to fit the size and shape of Western and Asian populations. Designing apparel for consumers provides an invaluable reference for apparel designers, manufacturers, and R&D managers in the textile industry, as well as postgraduate students and academic researchers in textiles. Reviews developments affecting clothing design for different groups of consumers Identifies various aspects of body shape, size, volume and the psychological aspects of designing apparel Outlines the challenges in understanding sizing and shape requirements and choices of particular customer groups