The semiconductor industry is a fundamental building block of the new economy, there is no area of modern life untouched by the progress of nanoelectronics. The electronic chip is becoming an ever-increasing portion of system solutions, starting initially from less than 5% in the 1970 microcomputer era, to more than 60% of the final cost of a mobile telephone, 50% of the price of a personal computer (representing nearly 100% of the functionalities) and 30% of the price of a monitor in the early 2000's. Interest in utilizing the (sub-)mm-wave frequency spectrum for commercial and research applications has also been steadily increasing. Such applications, which constitute a diverse but sizeable future market, span a large variety of areas such as health, material science, mass transit, industrial automation, communications, and space exploration. Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors for mm-Wave Systems Technology, Modeling and Circuit Applications provides an overview of results of the DOTSEVEN EU research project, and as such focusses on key material developments for mm-Wave Device Technology. It starts with the motivation at the beginning of the project and a summary of its major achievements. The subsequent chapters provide a detailed description of the obtained research results in the various areas of process development, device simulation, compact device modeling, experimental characterization, reliability, (sub-)mm-wave circuit design and systems.
This peer-reviewed book explores the methodologies that are used for effective research, design and innovation in the vast field of millimeter-wave circuits, and describes how these have to be modified to fit the uniqueness of high-frequency nanoelectronics design. Each chapter focuses on a specific research challenge related to either small form factors or higher operating frequencies. The book first examines nanodevice scaling and the emerging electronic design automation tools that can be used in millimeter-wave research, as well as the singular challenges of combining deep-submicron and millimeter-wave design. It also demonstrates the importance of considering, in the millimeter-wave context, system-level design leading to differing packaging options. Further, it presents integrated circuit design methodologies for all major transceiver blocks typically employed at millimeter-wave frequencies, as these methodologies are normally fundamentally different from the traditional design methodologies used in analogue and lower-frequency electronics. Lastly, the book discusses the methodologies of millimeter-wave research and design for extreme or harsh environments, rebooting electronics, the additional opportunities for terahertz research, and the main differences between the approaches taken in millimeter-wave research and terahertz research.
This book provides a detailed review of millimeter-wave power amplifiers, discussing design issues and performance limitations commonly encountered in light of the latest research. Power amplifiers, which are able to provide high levels of output power and linearity while being easily integrated with surrounding circuitry, are a crucial component in wireless microwave systems. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to mm-wave wireless systems and power amplifiers. In turn, the second focuses on design principles and EDA concepts, while the third discusses future trends in power amplifier research. The book provides essential information on mm-wave power amplifier theory, as well as the implementation options and technologies involved in their effective design, equipping researchers, circuit designers and practicing engineers to design, model, analyze, test and implement high-performance, spectrally clean and energy-efficient mm-wave systems.
When you see a nicely presented set of data, the natural response is: “How did they do that; what tricks did they use; and how can I do that for myself?” Alas, usually, you must simply keep wondering, since such tricks-of- the-trade are usually held close to the vest and rarely divulged. Shamefully ignored in the technical literature, measurement and modeling of high-speed semiconductor devices is a fine art. Robust measuring and modeling at the levels of performance found in modern SiGe devices requires extreme dexterity in the laboratory to obtain reliable data, and then a valid model to fit that data. Drawn from the comprehensive and well-reviewed Silicon Heterostructure Handbook, this volume focuses on measurement and modeling of high-speed silicon heterostructure devices. The chapter authors provide experience-based tricks-of-the-trade and the subtle nuances of measuring and modeling advanced devices, making this an important reference for the semiconductor industry. It includes easy-to-reference appendices covering topics such as the properties of silicon and germanium, the generalized Moll-Ross relations, the integral charge-control model, and sample SiGe HBT compact model parameters.
Chapter 2. Millimeter-Wave Characterization of Silicon Devices under Small-Signal Regime: Instruments and Measurement Methodologies
Author: Gilles Dambrine
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Category: Technology & Engineering
This chapter aims to describe experimental tools and techniques used for on-wafer millimeter (mm)-wave characterizations of silicon-based devices under the small-signal regime. We discuss the basics of scattering parameters (S parameters), high-frequency (HF) noise concept and measurement facilities, and expert details concerning experimental procedures. In this chapter, we describe first the basic notions of the S-parameters concept and its limitations, as well of as those HF noise. Secondly, the main experimental tools such as mm-wave vectorial network analyzer, noise setup, and on-wafer station are depicted. The third part concerns the description and the methodology of on-wafer calibration and de-embedding techniques applied for mm-wave advanced silicon devices. Finally, the last section focuses on the presentation and description of several examples of device characterizations. The main objective of this chapter is to propose a tradeoff between basic information and details of experience.
This book primarily focuses on the radiation effects and compact model of silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). It introduces the small-signal equivalent circuit of SiGe HBTs including the distributed effects, and proposes a novel direct analytical extraction technique based on non-linear rational function fitting. It also presents the total dose effects irradiated by gamma rays and heavy ions, as well as the single-event transient induced by pulse laser microbeams. It offers readers essential information on the irradiation effects technique and the SiGe HBTs model using that technique.
This groundbreaking book is the first to give an introduction to microwave de-embedding, showing how it is the cornerstone for waveform engineering. The authors of each chapter clearly explain the theoretical concepts, providing a foundation that supports linear and non-linear measurements, modelling and circuit design. Recent developments and future trends in the field are covered throughout, including successful strategies for low-noise and power amplifier design. This book is a must-have for those wishing to understand the full potential of the microwave de-embedding concept to achieve successful results in the areas of measurements, modelling, and design at high frequencies. With this book you will learn: The theoretical background of high-frequency de-embedding for measurements, modelling, and design Details on applying the de-embedding concept to the transistor’s linear, non-linear, and noise behaviour The impact of de-embedding on low-noise and power amplifier design The recent advances and future trends in the field of high-frequency de-embedding Presents the theory and practice of microwave de-embedding, from the basic principles to recent advances and future trends Written by experts in the field, all of whom are leading researchers in the area Each chapter describes theoretical background and gives experimental results and practical applications Includes forewords by Giovanni Ghione and Stephen Maas
Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world’s foremost experts in extreme environment electronics, the book provides in-depth information on a wide array of topics. It begins by describing the extreme conditions and then delves into a description of suitable semiconductor technologies and the modeling of devices within those technologies. It also discusses reliability issues and failure mechanisms that readers need to be aware of, as well as best practices for the design of these electronics. Continuing beyond just the "paper design" of building blocks, the book rounds out coverage of the design realization process with verification techniques and chapters on electronic packaging for extreme environments. The final set of chapters describes actual chip-level designs for applications in energy and space exploration. Requiring only a basic background in electronics, the book combines theoretical and practical aspects in each self-contained chapter. Appendices supply additional background material. With its broad coverage and depth, and the expertise of the contributing authors, this is an invaluable reference for engineers, scientists, and technical managers, as well as researchers and graduate students. A hands-on resource, it explores what is required to successfully operate electronics in the most demanding conditions.
No matter how you slice it, semiconductor devices power the communications revolution. Skeptical? Imagine for a moment that you could flip a switch and instantly remove all the integrated circuits from planet Earth. A moment’s reflection would convince you that there is not a single field of human endeavor that would not come to a grinding halt, be it commerce, agriculture, education, medicine, or entertainment. Life, as we have come to expect it, would simply cease to exist. Drawn from the comprehensive and well-reviewed Silicon Heterostructure Handbook, this volume covers SiGe circuit applications in the real world. Edited by John D. Cressler, with contributions from leading experts in the field, this book presents a broad overview of the merits of SiGe for emerging communications systems. Coverage spans new techniques for improved LNA design, RF to millimeter-wave IC design, SiGe MMICs, SiGe Millimeter-Wave ICs, and wireless building blocks using SiGe HBTs. The book provides a glimpse into the future, as envisioned by industry leaders.
This might be the first book that deals mostly with the 3D technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations of major state-of-the-art stress- and strain-engineered advanced semiconductor devices: MOSFETs, BJTs, HBTs, nonclassical MOS devices, finFETs, silicon-germanium hetero-FETs, solar cells, power devices, and memory devices. The book focuses on how to set up 3D TCAD simulation tools, from mask layout to process and device simulation, including design for manufacturing (DFM), and from device modeling to SPICE parameter extraction. The book also offers an innovative and new approach to teaching the fundamentals of semiconductor process and device design using advanced TCAD simulations of various semiconductor structures. The simulation examples chosen are from the most popular devices in use today and provide useful technology and device physics insights. To extend the role of TCAD in today’s advanced technology era, process compact modeling and DFM issues have been included for design–technology interface generation. Unique in approach, this book provides an integrated view of silicon technology and beyond—with emphasis on TCAD simulations. It is the first book to provide a web-based online laboratory for semiconductor device characterization and SPICE parameter extraction. It describes not only the manufacturing practice associated with the technologies used but also the underlying scientific basis for those technologies. Written from an engineering standpoint, this book provides the process design and simulation background needed to understand new and future technology development, process modeling, and design of nanoscale transistors. The book also advances the understanding and knowledge of modern IC design via TCAD, improves the quality in micro- and nanoelectronics R&D, and supports the training of semiconductor specialists. It is intended as a textbook or reference for graduate students in the field of semiconductor fabrication and as a reference for engineers involved in VLSI technology development who have to solve device and process problems. CAD specialists will also find this book useful since it discusses the organization of the simulation system, in addition to presenting many case studies where the user applies TCAD tools in different situations.
Materials, Fabrication, Devices, Circuits and Applications of SiGe and Si Strained-Layer Epitaxy
Author: John D. Cressler
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
An extraordinary combination of material science, manufacturing processes, and innovative thinking spurred the development of SiGe heterojunction devices that offer a wide array of functions, unprecedented levels of performance, and low manufacturing costs. While there are many books on specific aspects of Si heterostructures, the Silicon Heterostructure Handbook: Materials, Fabrication, Devices, Circuits, and Applications of SiGe and Si Strained-Layer Epitaxy is the first book to bring all aspects together in a single source. Featuring broad, comprehensive, and in-depth discussion, this handbook distills the current state of the field in areas ranging from materials to fabrication, devices, CAD, circuits, and applications. The editor includes "snapshots" of the industrial state-of-the-art for devices and circuits, presenting a novel perspective for comparing the present status with future directions in the field. With each chapter contributed by expert authors from leading industrial and research institutions worldwide, the book is unequalled not only in breadth of scope, but also in depth of coverage, timeliness of results, and authority of references. It also includes a foreword by Dr. Bernard S. Meyerson, a pioneer in SiGe technology. Containing nearly 1000 figures along with valuable appendices, the Silicon Heterostructure Handbook authoritatively surveys materials, fabrication, device physics, transistor optimization, optoelectronics components, measurement, compact modeling, circuit design, and device simulation.
Advanced concepts for wireless technologies present a vision of technology that is embedded in our surroundings and practically invisible. From established radio techniques like GSM, 802.11 or Bluetooth to more emerging technologies, such as Ultra Wide Band and smart dust motes, a common denominator for future progress is the underlying integrated circuit technology. Wireless Technologies responds to the explosive growth of standard cellular radios and radically different wireless applications by presenting new architectural and circuit solutions engineers can use to solve modern design problems. This reference addresses state-of-the art CMOS design in the context of emerging wireless applications, including 3G/4G cellular telephony, wireless sensor networks, and wireless medical application. Written by top international experts specializing in both the IC industry and academia, this carefully edited work uncovers new design opportunities in body area networks, medical implants, satellite communications, automobile radar detection, and wearable electronics. The book is divided into three sections: wireless system perspectives, chip architecture and implementation issues, and devices and technologies used to fabricate wireless integrated circuits. Contributors address key issues in the development of future silicon-based systems, such as scale of integration, ultra-low power dissipation, and the integration of heterogeneous circuit design style and processes onto one substrate. Wireless sensor network systems are now being applied in critical applications in commerce, healthcare, and security. This reference, which contains 25 practical and scientifically rigorous articles, provides the knowledge communications engineers need to design innovative methodologies at the circuit and system level.
The Industrial Electronics Handbook, Second Edition combines traditional and newer, more specialized knowledge that will help industrial electronics engineers develop practical solutions for the design and implementation of high-power applications. Embracing the broad technological scope of the field, this collection explores fundamental areas, including analog and digital circuits, electronics, electromagnetic machines, signal processing, and industrial control and communications systems. It also facilitates the use of intelligent systems—such as neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary methods—in terms of a hierarchical structure that makes factory control and supervision more efficient by addressing the needs of all production components. Enhancing its value, this fully updated collection presents research and global trends as published in the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Journal, one of the largest and most respected publications in the field. Fundamentals of Industrial Electronics covers the essential areas that form the basis for the field. This volume presents the basic knowledge that can be applied to the other sections of the handbook. Topics covered include: Circuits and signals Devices Digital circuits Digital and analog signal processing Electromagnetics Other volumes in the set: Power Electronics and Motor Drives Control and Mechatronics Industrial Communication Systems Intelligent Systems
Featuring hundreds of illustrations and references, this volume in the third edition of the Circuits and Filters Handbook, provides the latest information on analog and VLSI circuits, omitting extensive theory and proofs in favor of numerous examples throughout each chapter. The first part of the text focuses on analog integrated circuits, presenting up-to-date knowledge on monolithic device models, analog circuit cells, high performance analog circuits, RF communication circuits, and PLL circuits. In the second half of the book, well-known contributors offer the latest findings on VLSI circuits, including digital systems, data converters, and systolic arrays.
"An excellent introduction to the SiGe BiCMOS technology, from the underlying device physics to current applications." -Ron Wilson, EETimes "SiGe technology has demonstrated the ability to provide excellent high-performance characteristics with very low noise, at high power gain, and with excellent linearity. This book is a comprehensive review of the technology and of the design methods that go with it." -Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli Professor, University of California, Berkeley Cofounder, Chief Technology Officer, Member of Board Cadence Design Systems Inc. Filled with in-depth insights and expert advice, Silicon Germanium covers all the key aspects of this technology and its applications. Beginning with a brief introduction to and historical perspective of IBM's SiGe technology, this comprehensive guide quickly moves on to: * Detail many of IBM's SiGe technology development programs * Explore IBM's approach to device modeling and characterization-including predictive TCAD modeling * Discuss IBM's design automation and signal integrity knowledge and implementation methodologies * Illustrate design applications in a variety of IBM's SiGe technologies * Highlight details of highly integrated SiGe BiCMOS system-on-chip (SOC) design Written for RF/analog and mixed-signal designers, CAD designers, semiconductor students, and foundry process engineers worldwide, Silicon Germanium provides detailed insight into the modeling and design automation requirements for leading-edge RF/analog and mixed-signal products, and illustrates in-depth applications that can be implemented using IBM's advanced SiGe process technologies and design kits. "This volume provides an excellent introduction to the SiGe BiCMOS technology, from the underlying device physics to current applications. But just as important is the window the text provides into the infrastructure-the process development, device modeling, and tool development." -Ron Wilson Silicon Engineering Editor, EETimes "This book chronicles the development of SiGe in detail, provides an in-depth look at the modeling and design automation requirements for making advanced applications using SiGe possible, and illustrates such applications as implemented using IBM's process technologies and design methods." -John Kelly Senior Vice President and Group Executive, Technology Group, IBM