The industrialization of food preservation and processing has been a dramatic development across Europe during modern times. This book sets out its story from the beginning of the nineteenth century when preservation of food from one harvest to another was essential to prevent hunger and even famine. Population growth and urbanization depended upon a break out from the ’biological ancien regime’ in which hunger was an ever-present threat. The application of mass production techniques by the food industries was essential to the modernization of Europe. From the mid-nineteenth century the development of food industries followed a marked regional pattern. After an initial growth in north-west Europe, the spread towards south-east Europe was slowed by social, cultural and political constraints. This was notable in the post-Second World War era. The picture of change in this volume is presented by case studies of countries ranging from the United Kingdom in the west to Romania in the east. All illustrate the role of food industries in creating new products that expanded the traditional cereal-based diet of pre-industrial Europe. Industrially preserved and processed foods provided new flavours and appetizing novelties which led to brand names recognized by consumers everywhere. Product marketing and advertising became fundamental to modern food retailing so that Europe’s largest food producers, Danone, Nestlé and Unilever, are numbered amongst the world’s biggest companies.
Sir William Reardon Smith's Life in Shipping, 1856-1935
Author: David Jenkins
Publisher: University of Wales Press
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Sir William Reardon Smith (1856-1935) was one of the foremost figures in south Wales in the early twentieth century. His was a classic story of ‘rags to riches’ - starting life as a deck-hand and ship’s cook sailing from his native Appledore in 1870, he was a master mariner at the age of twenty-two and subsequently commanded many of the fine sailing ships owned by Hugh Hogarth & Sons of Glasgow. A long-cherished ambition to become a shipowner was eventually realised in 1906 when he acquired his first steamship, City of Cardiff. The venture prospered and nine vessels were owned on the eve of the First World War. He subsequently showed great entrepreneurial initiative during the depression, acquiring motor vessels and establishing new trade routes. He is also remembered as a great philanthropist, particularly through his association with the National Museum of Wales – during his term as treasurer (1925-28) and president (1928-32), he restored the museum’s faltering finances and enabled the construction of the it’s east wing which is now so integral a part of Cardiff’s dignified civic centre. His establishment of the Reardon Smith Nautical School in Cardiff in 1921 was another notable achievement; this school provided an opportunity for aspiring deck officers to learn the essential skills appropriate to their chosen careers. He also funded hospital developments in Cardiff and Bideford, and endowed the chair of geography at Exeter University. At the time of his death in December 1935, fulsome tributes were paid to him both by his fellow shipowners and by the principals of those organisations which had benefitted from his generosity; many of those who live in south Wales and the West country today still enjoy that legacy
This important reference volume covers developments in almost every aspect of British library and information work during the ten-year period 1991-2000. The book provides a comprehensive record of what took place in library and information management during a decade of considerable change and challenges.