During the 1991 Gulf War, pundits and experts scrambled unsuccessfully to explain Iraq's "claim" to Kuwait. In a lucid and measured account of a complex historical and geographic drama that culminated in Operation Desert Storm, David Finnie elucidates the long Kuwaiti-Iraqi border dispute and lays Saddam Hussein's dubious claim to rest. He also raises larger questions about European colonialism and about the creation of new nation-states in the Middle East in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Finnie vividly portrays how arbitrary the drawing of frontiers can be, and how they come to serve internal, regional, and international rivalries and ambitions. This history begins in the eighteenth century, when Kuwait was first settled by nomads from the Arabian desert. Finnie describes the country's growing prosperity under a merchant oligarchy, then shows how the Kuwaitis, seeking British protection from the sprawling Ottoman Empire, came to serve England's imperial strategy. He details the ways in which Britain parlayed its mandatory control of Iraq and its protectorate over Kuwait to curb the larger nation's ambitions and to ensure Kuwait's independence under British auspices. A fresh look at British diplomatic documents reveals how Whitehall covered its tracks, heading off the Iraqis, obfuscating League of Nations proceedings, and confounding scholars and researchers down to the present day. Pursuing his story through Britain's withdrawal from the Persian Gulf and Iraq's 1963 recognition of Kuwait's boundaries, Finnie examines the U.N. post-war measures to secure the frontier in the face of Iraq's continuing pressure for better access to Gulf waters.
For most Americans, the war against Iraq lingers in memory as a vast morality play, a drama offering ready made heroes and villains: a glowering dictator in military uniform, hapless Kuwaiti refugees with tales of persecution, plucky pilots with high-tech wizardry, and a defiant American president, ringing Churchillian as he drew a line in the sand. But this characterization of the war is greatly oversimplified, a one-dimensional portrait, lacking in context and nuance. In War in the Gulf, 1990 91, eminent scholars Majid Khadduri and Edmund Ghareeb paint a very different picture, one that brings historical depth to the portrait, and displays the actions of many of the participants in a new and revealing light. Khadduri and Ghareeb offer a far more accurate and complex portrait of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict, providing a wealth of background information not readily available before. They made a distinction between the differences between Iraq and Kuwait over frontiers, territory, and sovereignty and the method pursued by Iraqi leaders to resolve those differences. They explore, for instance, the history of relations between Iraq and Kuwait, revealing that Kuwait had once been a part of Basra (in southern Iraq) during the Ottoman rule, and only became a separate country while under British control (it was the British in fact who drew the much-disputed boundary line between Iraq and Kuwait). Khadduri and Ghareeb describe the many decades of struggle to resolve the boundary issue, examining the repeated attempts by other Arab states to mediate according to Islamic traditions of consultation and peaceful resolution within the faith. The authors also show how Saddam Husayn's war with Iran exacerbated the boundary tensions. Because of the decade-long war, Iraq badly needed oil revenue to repay wartime loans and to rebuild, but Kuwait persisted in pumping far beyond its OPEC quota, driving down prices, and costing Iraq billions of dollars of revenue. The book reveals how Kuwait spurned Arab attempts to mediate this clash over oil prices as well as the longstanding boundary dispute, frustrating efforts to resolve this crisis by peaceful means. In one particularly interesting section, the book examines the diplomatic talks during the early summer of 1990, both among various Arab nations (most notably, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Kuwait), and with Saddam Husayn and the United States (they show how messages from Washington and a visit by a congressional delegation lead by Senator Dole convinced the Iraqi leaders that they would be allowed to settle their problems with Kuwait without outside interference). Khadduri and Ghareeb carry us through to the present, exploring the war and its aftermath, from the uprisings against Baghdad, to the continuing U.N. sanctions, to the recent defections from Saddam's inner circle. War in the Gulf is a balanced, eye-opening account of one of the central events of recent years. It corrects the Western views of most reporting, explaining the frame of mind of the participants as no one has done before and causing us to examine anew such questions as who was responsible for the conflict, and what might have happened if the United States had not intervened so rapidly.
Based on extensive research of British documents from the Public Records Office, and American documents from the National Archives and several Presidential Libraries, this book surveys events in Kuwait from the beginning of the twentieth century until the Second World War, and explains Britain's initial interest in the ruling al-Sabah family, before focusing on the post-1945 period.
Social media has an increasing role in the public and private world. This raises socio-political and legal issues in the corporate and academic spheres. Public Interest and Private Rights in Social Media provides insight into the use, impact and future of social media. The contributors provide guidance on social media and society, particularly the use of social media in the corporate sector and academia, the rising influence of social media in public and political opinion making, and the legal implications of social media. The Editor brings together unusual perspectives on the use of social media, both in developed and developing countries. This title consists of twelve chapters, each covering a salient topic, including: social media in the context of global media; the First Amendment and online calls for action; social media and the rule of law; social networks and the self; social media strategy in the public sector; social media in humanitarian work; social media as a tool in business education; social media and the ‘continuum of transparency’; business and social media; making a difference to customer service with social media; social analytics data and platforms; and altruism as a valuable dimension of the digital age. Provides a guide to the key components of corporate and academic use of social media Offers technological and non-technological, legal, and international perspectives Considers socio-political impact and legal issues
After being granted full independence in 1961, Kuwait began its tumultuous relationship with the US. This book sets out to investigate this alliance within the frameworks of a ‘small state’ and ‘influence’, and in particular under the US presidents Carter, Reagan, and Bush. The political, diplomatic and military aspects are examined which have both stalled and enhanced the bilateral relationship at different times and events. The relationship between the two countries has not always been a straightforward one. Kuwait, overshadowed by its bigger neighbour Saudi Arabia, was regarded as a derivative interest by the US and its role within the region more often than not underestimated. Shedding new light on this key political alliance, the book details how this uneasy relationship evolved while Kuwait maintained its independent foreign policy, which contradicted US national interest. Illuminating and informative, it is essential reading for anyone with an interest in Middle East politics and international relations.
The Ethics of Territorial Borders develops a distinctive line of argument, drawing on political theory and geography as well as international relations. Unusually, this book argues for the ethical significance of borders themselves, pointing to their role in human diversity and the enduring appeal of territorial division.
Three years ago, Carl Ragar turned on the mob. His conscience couldn’t handle the murder of an innocent bystander, and he had to turn his back on his mentor, Petroc “Pete” Barbu, a man he’d admired and lusted after. Pete made no apologies for his job as an enforcer, but he’d never planned to get himself or Carl involved in the murder of a reporter. When Carl turned state’s evidence, Pete couldn’t even pretend to be surprised.
This is the ultimate guide to international maritime boundaries. Its unique practical features include - systematic examination of all international maritime boundaries worldwide; - comprehensive coverage, including the text of every modern boundary agreement; - descriptions of judicially-established boundaries; - maps and detailed analyses of those boundaries; - expert papers examining the status of maritime boundary delimitations in each of the ten regions of the world; - papers from a global perspective analyzing key issues in maritime boundary theory and practice; and - a cumulative index for volumes I - III.These features make International Maritime Boundaries an unmatched comprehensive, accessible resource in the field.
Presents a distinctive theoretical approach to the problem of borders in the study of International Relations. It turns from the current debate regarding the presence or absence of borders to consider the fundamental change that is occurring in the concep
A Companion to Border Studies introduces an exciting and expanding field of interdisciplinary research, through the writing of an international array of scholars, from diverse perspectives that include anthropology, development studies, geography, history, political science and sociology. Explores how nations and cultural identities are being transformed by their dynamic, shifting borders where mobility is sometimes facilitated, other times impeded or prevented Offers an array of international views which together form an authoritative guide for students, instructors and researchers Reflects recent significant growth in the importance of understanding the distinctive characteristics of borders and frontiers, including cross-border cooperation, security and controls, migration and population displacements, hybridity, and transnationalism