Shear waves and closely related interface waves (Rayleigh, Stoneley and Scholte) play an important role in many areas of engineering, geophysics and underwater acoustics. In some cases interest is focused on large-amplitude waves of low frequency such as those associ ated with earthquakes and nuclear explosions; in other cases low amplitude waves, which have often travelled great distances through the sediment, are of interest. Both low and high frequency shear and interface waves are often used for seafloor probing and sediment characterization. As a result of the wide spectrum of different interests, different disciplines have developed lines of research and a literature particularly suited to their own problems. For example water-column acousticians view the seafloor sediment as the lower boundary of their domain and are interested in shear and interface waves in the near bottom sediments mainly from the standpoint of how they influence absorption and reflection at this boundary. On the other hand, geophysicists seeking deep oil deposits are interested in the maximum penetration into the sediments and the tell-tale characteristics of the seismic waves that have encountered potential oil or gas bearing strata. In another area, geotechnical engineers use shear and interface waves to study soil properties necessary for the design and the siting of seafloor structures.
In situ measurements were made of the velocity and attenuation of compressional waves and of velocities of Stoneley waves (from which shear-wave velocities were computed) at six stations in the sea floor off San Diego, California. Water depths ranged from 20 to 1130 meters, and sediment types ranged from medium sand to clayey silt. Sediment densities, porosities, and grain sizes were measured in samples taken at each station. The unique data obtained allowed tentative evaluations of models and equations, and computation of constants, for elastic and viscoelastic saturated, porous media. (Author).
Measurements of the velocity of shear waves at various depths in common watersaturated sediments were collected from published studies. Because measurements in marine sediments are rare, most of this information came from land geology and geophysics. This report considered the two end-member sediments types: sand and silt-clays, including turbidites which are alternating layers of silt-clay with thinner layers of silt and sand. The shear velocity measurements in sands were 29 selected, in situ values at depths to 12m. Data from laboratory and field studies indicate that shear wave velocity is proportional to the 1/3 to 1/6 power of pressure or depth in sands; that the 1/6 power is not reached until very high pressures are applied; and that for most sand bodies the exponent is between 3/10 and 1/4. Data from laboratory studies allow prediction of compressional wave (sound) as a function of depth in sands. The shear velocity measurements in silt-clays and turbidites used in this report include 47 measurements to depths of 650 m. Three linear equations were used to characterize the data. The shear velocity gradient in the upper 40m(4.65/sec) is 4-5 times greater than is the compressional wave (sound) velocity gradient in comparable sediments. At deeper depths, shear velocity and compressional velocity gradients are comparable. This report concludes with methods for prediction of shear wave velocity profiles and gradients in sea-floor sediments. This result will be of immediate use in a sophisticated model that determines sound energy losses when an acoustic wave interacts with the sea floor.
Knowledge of basic clay microstructure is fundamental to an understanding of the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of fine-grained sediments and rocks. This compilation of fifty-nine peer-reviewed papers examines clay microstructure in detail with comprehensive sections focusing on microstructure signatures, environmental processes, modeling, measurement techniques, and future research recommendations. Many of these topics are discussed in light of geological and engineering applications, such as hazardous waste disposal, construction techniques, and drilling programs. The field of clay microstructure is developing rapidly. The concepts, observations, and principles presented in this book will help stimulate new thought and be a "spring board" for exciting new research.
The phenomenon of sound transmissions through marine sediments is of extreme interest to both the United States civilian and Navy research communities. Both communities have conducted research within the field of this phenomenon approaching it from different perspectives. The academic research community has approached it as a technique for studying sedimentary and crustal structures of the ocean basins. The Navy research community has approached it as an additional variable in the predictability of sound trans mission through oceanic waters. In order to join these diverse talents, with the principal aim of bringing into sharp focus the state-of-the-science in the problems relating to the behavior of sound in marine sediments, the Office of Naval Research organized and sponsored an invited symposium on this subject. The papers published in this volume are the results of this symposium and mark the frontiers in the state-of-the-art. The symposia series were based on five research areas identified by ONR as being particularly suitable for critical review and for the appraisal of future research trends. These areas include: 1. Physics of Sound in Marine Sediments, 2. Physical and Engineering Properties of Deep-Sea Sediments, 3. The Role of Bottom Currents in Sea Floor Geological Processes, 4. Nephelometry and the Optical Properties of the Ocean I'laters, S. Natural Gases in Marine Sediments and Their Mode of Distribution. These five areas also form some of the research priorities of the ONR program in Marine Geology and Geophysics.
This book contains 67 papers presented at ICTCA2001. It includes three keynote addresses surveying the frontier developments in computational and theoretical acoustics. The papers cover aero-, seismo- and ocean acoustics, as well as ultrasonics. Computational methods, numerical simulation, theoretical analysis and experimental results are emphasized by different papers.The proceedings have been selected for coverage in: Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings (ISTP CDROM version / ISI Proceedings)