Eighteen new essays by respected critics on Shakespeare and his dramatic antecedents, contemporaries, and successors, offering an up-to-date survey-history of Renaissance theater and examples of scholarly and critical methodology.
This volume presents a brief discussion about the characteristics of William Shakespeare's stages, the history of Elizabethan theaters, the physical conditions of the stage, the composition of the companies of actors, the influence of the physical nature of the stage upon the quality of the drama, and many other related topics. The plays of Shakespeare during his lifetime were performed on stages in private theaters, provincial theaters, and playhouses. His plays were acted out in the yards of bawdy inns and in the great halls of the London inns of court. Although the Globe is certainly the most well known of all the Renaissance stages associated with Shakespeare and is rightfully the primary focus of discussion, this work includes a brief introduction to some of the other Elizabethan theaters of the time in order to provide a more complete picture of the world in which Shakespeare lived and worked.
This bibliography will give comprehensive coverage to published commentary in English on Shakespeare and the Classical Tradition during the period from 1961-1985. Doctoral dissertations will also be included. Each entry will provide a clear and detailed summary of an item's contents. For pomes and plays based directly on classical sources like Antony and Cleopatra and The Rape of Lucrece, virtually all significant scholarly work during the period covered will be annotated. For other works such as Hamlet, any scholarship that deals with classical connotations will be annotated. Any other bibliographies used in the compiling of this volume will be described with emphasis on their value to a student of Shakespeare and the Classics.
A Study of Stage Characters and National Identity in English Renaissance Drama, 1558-1642
Author: A. J. Hoenselaars
Publisher: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press
The emergent national awareness in Europe during the early modern period revealed itself as patriotism and xenophobia during the age of Elizabeth. These sentiments were mainly induced by England's stance in the politico-religious debate that divided Europe, and by the arrival of refugees from abroad who placed a burden on the national economy. The popular feeling led to a multifaceted crystallization of matters native and foreign on the London stage. One manifestation of the new preoccupation was the presentation of stage characters with distinct nationalities. Drawing on stock traits, the dramatists initially created a stage world in which the Englishman was almost invariably superior to the foreigner, both in the native environment and in a continental setting. The glorification of the nation's self-image at the expense of others, however, was not to persist. English society largely absorbed the original shock induced by the influx of foreigners, and toward the end of the 1590s xenophobia lost its strident tone. Patriotism, too, was modified. The year 1588 became a historical date as James I's peace policy grew into the most popular news topic of his reign. These sociopolitical changes challenged the original images of Englishmen and foreigners in the drama. Under a climate with England ignominiously vacating the European political stage, it was difficult to uphold the once unquestioned self-image of the warlike nation. One group of dramatists, therefore, came to present the image as a forsaken ideal that could only be realized if the nation resumed its international duties. Other dramatists presented it as a past ideal and accepted it as an object for nostalgic self-gratification. The favorable self-image also became a target for the satirists. They attacked the old definition of the English and assigned to their own countrymen those properties which had previously been attributed to the foreigner. The caustic speculation on national character traits in Stuart drama was not only induced by the playwrights' discontent with the anachronistic and complimentary Elizabethan self-image. It also represented a budding skepticism with regard to the generalizing tendency involved in the definitions of national character. Inevitably, the image of the foreigner in the drama profited from the redefinition of the Englishman's auto-stereotyped image. As the satire which had previously been aimed at the foreigner came to be largely directed against the Englishman, a degree of rapprochement was established. There was a new exchange, as Richard Brome formulated it in the subtitle to his New Academy. Until the closing of the theaters in 1642, the satirical redefinition of the English national character persisted alongside the nostalgic confirmation of the favorable Elizabethan self-image. These divergent views expressed on the London stage bring into focus a national identity crisis. It parallels the growing contemporary conviction that the nation had traded in its decisive role on the European political scene for that of a passive onlooker.
Shakespeare has never been more ubiquitous, not only on the stage and in academic writing, but in film, video and the popular press. On television, he advertises everything from cars to fast food. His birthplace, the tiny Warwickshire village of Stratford-Upon-Avon, has been transformed into a theme park of staggering commercialism, and the New Globe, in its second season, is already a far bigger business than the old Globe could ever have hoped to be. If popular culture cannot do without Shakespeare, continually reinventing him and reimagining his drama and his life, neither can the critical and scholarly world, for which Shakespeare has, for more than two centuries, served as the central text for analysis and explication, the foundation of the western literary canon and the measure of literary excellence.The Shakespeare the essays collected in these volumes reveal is fully as multifarious as the Shakespeare of theme parks, movies and television. Indeed, it is part of the continuing reinvention of Shakespeare. The essays are drawn for the most part from work done in the past three decades, though a few essential, enabling essays from an earlier period have been included. They not only chart the directions taken by Shakespeare studies in the recent past, but they serve to indicate the enormous and continuing vitality of the enterprise, and the extent to which Shakespeare has become a metonym for literary and artistic endeavor generally.
Applying recent developments in new historicism and cultural materialism-along with the new perspectives opened up by the current debate on intertextuality and the construction of the theatrical text-the essays collected here reconsider the pervasive infl
Many secondary school students find Shakespeare’s plays to be difficult and forbidding. This is often attributed to the somewhat dated language used in the original Shakespearean versions as well as the cultural context of the Elizabethan world. Louis Rozario Doss’s “Shakespearean Drama for Secondary Schools” is a timely remedy. This compendium contains renditions of Shakespeare in simplified,modern English which is more easily understood by learners of English. Louis Rozario Doss’s renditions retain the spice of Shakespeare’s original tales while giving them more pointed relevance to our modern times.They are not intend to replace Shakespeare.They are designed to whet the reader’s appetite for the original works of William Shakespeare.
This was the age of the star. For the first time in the history of the theater, the playwright took second place to the actor; the interpretation of the role assumed primary importance in a assessing a performance. It was Mr. Kean's Hamlet first, and Mr. Shakespeare's second. What effects did this highly subjective, interpretive emphasis have on the drama? Where did it originate and how did it evolve? These questions are considered at length in the author's analysis of the nature of Romanticism itself as revealed in essays, novels, criticism, and by the actors themselves. The Jacobean origins of this revolutionary period are reviewed, followed by a close scrutiny of the critical writing of such contemporary thinkers as Hazlitt, Coleridge, Shelley, and Keats. This entirely new concept provides an important link between the practical theater and the contemporary philosophical thought of the time. Originally published in 1970. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.