An Examination of the Civilian Deaths in Historical Context
Author: Alexander Astroth
When the Americans invaded the Japanese-controlled islands of Saipan and Tinian in 1944, civilians and combatants committed mass suicide to avoid being captured. Though these mass suicides have been mentioned in documentary films, they have received scant scholarly attention. This book draws on United States National Archives documents and photographs, as well as veteran and survivor testimonies, to provide readers with a better understanding of what happened on the two islands and why. The author details the experiences of the people of the islands from prehistoric times to the present, with an emphasis on the Japanese, Okinawan, Korean, Chamorro and Carolinian civilians during invasion and occupation.
After the astonishing Japanese successes of 1941 and early 1942, the Allies began to fight back. After victories at Guadalcanal, Coral Sea, Midway and other islands in the Pacific, by 1944, the Japanese had been pushed back onto the defensive. Yet there was no sign of an end to the war, as the Japanese mainland was beyond the reach of land-based heavy bombers. So, in the spring of 1944, the focus of attention turned to the Mariana Islands - Guam, Saipan and Tinian - which were close enough to Tokyo to place the Japanese capital within the operational range of the new Boeing B-29 Superfortress. The attack upon Saipan, the most heavily-defended of the Marianas, took the Japanese by surprise, but over the course of more than three weeks, the 29,000 Japanese defenders defied the might of 71,000 US Marines and infantry, supported by fifteen battleships and eleven cruisers. The storming of the beaches and the mountainous interior cost the US troops dearly, in what was the most-costly battle to date in the Pacific War. Eventually, after three weeks of savage fighting, which saw the Japanese who refused to surrender being burned to death in their caves, the enemy commander, Lieutenant General Saito, was left with just 3,000 able-bodied men and he ordered them to deliver a final suicide banzai charge. With the wounded limping behind, along with numbers of civilians, the Japanese overran two US battalions, before the 4,500 men were wiped out. It was the largest banzai attack of the Pacific War. As well as placing the Americans within striking distance of Tokyo, the capture of Saipan also opened the way for General MacArthur to mount his invasion of the Philippines and resulted in the resignation of the Japanese Prime Minister Tojo. One Japanese admiral admitted that 'Our war was lost with the loss of Saipan'. This is a highly illustrated story of what US General Holland Smith called 'the decisive battle of the Pacific offensive'. It was, he added, the offensive that 'opened the way to the Japanese home islands'.
The 1944 invasion of Saipan was the first two-division amphibious assault conducted by US forces in World War II. Saipan and Tinian had been under Japanese control since 1914 and, heavily colonized, they were considered virtually part of the Empire. The struggle for Saipan and Tinian was characterized by the same bitter fighting that typified the entire Central Pacific campaign. Fighting side-by-side, Army and Marine units witnessed the largest tank battle of the Pacific War, massed Japanese banzai charges, and the horror of hundreds of Japanese civilians committing suicide to avoid capture. In this book Gordon Rottman details the capture of these vital islands that led to the collapse of Prime Minister Tojo's government.
1944 Battle for Saipan, Invasion of Tinian, and Recapture of Guam
Author: Daniel Wrinn
Category: Operation Forager, 1944
"A gripping account of one of the most daring--and disturbing--operations in the Pacific war. From the heavy fighting in Saipan to the securing of Tinian and Guam, the Pacific war left its profound mark in this sheltered corner of the world, which could be felt for several decades to come. Caught in the center of a vicious struggle between two superpowers, these islands would form an unconventional battleground for US forces and the Japanese Navy."--Page 4 of cover.
The story of the Battle of Saipan has it all. Marines at war: on Pacific beaches, in hellish volcanic landscapes in places like Purple Heart Ridge, Death Valley, and Hell’s Pocket, under a commander known as “Howlin’ Mad.” Naval combat: carriers battling carriers from afar, fighters downing Japanese aircraft, submarines sinking carriers. Marine-army rivalry. Fanatical Japanese defense and resistance. A turning point of the Pacific War. James Hallas reconstructs the full panorama of Saipan in a way that no recent chronicler of the battle has done. In its comprehensiveness, attention to detail, scope of research, and ultimate focus on the men who fought and won the battle on the beaches and at and above the sea, it rivals Richard Frank’s modern classic Guadalcanal. This is the definitive military history of the Battle of Saipan.
The battle for Saipan and the Marianas island chain in the central Pacific was one of the toughest battles of World War II. Assaulted by two U.S. Marine and one Army divisions, plus one of the largest naval armadas ever assembled, Saipan was a strategic victory for the United States, as once it was captured, massive new B-29 bombers were able to attack Japan from the island chain. This is the historically accurate but fictional story of one of the notional Marines who hit Red Beach in June 1944: Lance Corporal Henry Hennessey, a high-school hockey player-turned-Marine from Syracuse, New York. Read how and why he joined, what his training was like on Hawaii, who his buddies were in A Team, 2nd Squad, 3rd Platoon, Fox Company, 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines, and what combat was like on Saipan, 1944.
The battle for Saipan and the Marianas Island chain in the Central Pacific was one of the toughest battles of World War II. Assaulted by three American divisions-two Marine and one Army-and supported one of the largest naval armadas ever assembled, Saipan was a strategic victory for the United States. Once it was secured by late-July 1944, massive new B-29 bombers were able to attack Japan from the island chain. This is the historically accurate but fictional story of one of the Marines who hit Red Beach in June 1944: Lance Corporal Henry Hennessey, a high school hockey player from Syracuse, New York. Read how and why Henry joined, what his training was like on Hawaii, who his buddies were in A Team, 2nd Squad, 3rd Platoon, Fox Company, 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines, and what combat was like on Saipan, 1944.
The relief of Major General Ralph Smith, U.S. Army, from the command of the 27th Infantry Division during the battle for Saipan on 24 June 1944 by Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith, U.S. Marine Corps, seemingly ignited a slow-burning fuse of service competition, jealousy, and animosity that some say is still burning bright today...Nearly seventy years later, the question is still a topic of debate. Was Lieutenant General Holland Smith justified in relieving Major General Ralph Smith? Holland Smith’s justifications centered on Ralph Smith’s apparent disregard of orders and perceived inability to lead his division in combat. Historical appraisals of this relief have most often focused on either Army or Marine Corps doctrines in place at the time of the battle for Saipan. Instead of comparing and contrasting doctrines from the Second World War, this monograph appraises Lieutenant General Holland Smith’s effectiveness as a corps level commander and the factors influencing his decision to relieve Major General Ralph Smith using today’s doctrinal combat power assessment from the Army’s Operations, FM 3-0 Change 1...This monograph evaluates the justifications based on today’s standards of combat power analysis, focusing on only three of the eight elements of combat power: military intelligence, mission command, and leadership. The flawed military intelligence assessment of the enemy’s strengths and capabilities at two pieces of key terrain, the unclear operational orders in the midst of battlefield friction, and the underappreciated leadership abilities of Ralph Smith all contributed to Holland Smith’s reasoning for relieving the Army division commander. In viewing the relief through the elements of today’s combat power application, Holland Smith’s decision appears premature and the justifications that Ralph Smith disregarded orders and lacked leadership are not fully substantiated when weighed against this monograph’s methodology.
When V Amphibious Corps were preparing for the invasion of the Marianas Islands—Saipan, Guam, and Tinian—they were expecting a relatively easy fight. The Japanese appeared to be on the run. As D day for Saipan (the first of the three islands scheduled for conquest) loomed, V Corps planners felt safe in allocating a single army division as corps reserve for the conquest. As Lt. Col. William J. O’Brien’s First Battalion and the 105th Infantry landed on Saipan, they had little idea what was in store for them. Enemy opposition was fierce. For the next several weeks they faced the unremitting terror of nearly continuous combat. For the 105th Infantry, the battle climaxed in an overwhelming Japanese banzai attack July 7, 1944. The regiment suffered more than 900 casualties, almost half of whom were killed in action, including First Battalion’s commander, William O’Brien, who later received the Medal of Honor for his efforts. Throughout the battle, O’Brien provided a stirring example of frontline leadership to his previously untested troops. His story is just as inspiring today.
In April, May and June 1944, there were three major areas of naval conflict: In New Guinea: United States (US) and Australian forces landed at Aitape and Hollandia, then at Arare, Wakde and Biak Island. In Europe: The battle for the control of the English Channel heated up. The German navy attacked what they thought was an Allied convoy along the English southwestern coast. They had actually stumbled upon Operation TIGER, the Allied training exercise for the upcoming Normandy landing. RAF Bomber Command mined Biscay, Bretagne, La Pallice, Lorient, Brest, Cherbourg, Le Havre, Den Helder, Texel, the Friesian Islands, the German Bay, Kattegat, Kiel, Swinemünde, Gotenhafen, and Pillau. The Allies initiated Operation NEPTUNE to conceal the real Allied landing location from the Germans. All this culminated in the Allied landing in Normandy, France, in Operation OVERLORD. In the Pacific: The US landed on Saipan, considered Japanese territory, in Operation FORAGER, which caused the Battle of the Philippine Sea.
Pacific Theater: The Ultimate Traveler's Guide to the Battlefields, Monuments and Museums
Author: Chuck Thompson
Publisher: ASDavis Media Group
Follow the footsteps of history with the world's first and only comprehensive guide covering the entire Pacific Theater. Directions to everything from jungle relics and city museums to landing beaches and hallowed battlefields. More than 500 individual points of interest and detailed histories. With maps of all sites and more than 40 color photos. In-depth travel information and Insider tips. Accommodations close to major sites and spectacular beaches. Never before documented sites. For the casual traveler or dedicated war buff, this unique, all-encompassing guide is an essential part of any trip to Asia or the Pacific. Meticulous, up-to-date research makes getting to sites easy, leaving plenty of time to enjoy the beaches and other fabled attractions of some of the most beautiful islands and vibrant cities in the world.
D-Day in the Pacific--Saipan to Guam, June-August 1944
Author: Victor Brooks
Publisher: Da Capo Press
On June 14, 1944, little more than a week after the D-Day invasion of Normandy, another mighty fleet steamed towards its own D-Day landing. The target of this mighty U.S. armada was the Marianas Island group, which included Saipan, home to an important Japanese base, and Guam, the first American territory captured in the aftermath of Pearl Harbor. When the brutal fighting ended eight weeks later, 60,000 Japanese ground troops and most of the carrier air power of the Japanese Imperial Navy were annihilated. Hell Is Upon Us skillfully describes the entire Marianas campaign-World War II's most ambitious combined service operation and the largest carrier battle in history-and provides riveting first-hand accounts of the soldiers, marines, sailors, and airmen who fought through the hell of Japan's Pacific defense.
A visitor's guide to fantastic facts, tantalizing trivia, startling statistics, dramatic diaries and hair-raising history from America's most colorful island territory
Author: Walt F.J. Goodridge
Publisher: a company called W
Yes, there's something about Saipan that endears it to visitors and residents alike. But what is it exactly? Is it the weather? Is it the unique history? Is it the warm, welcoming indigenous Chamorro and Carolinian people? Is it the unique mix of guest workers and expats from all over the world? Is it the unique, possibly magical. energetically enhanced proximity to the Marianas Trench, a combination of all these or something as yet unidentified? Read more at : https://www.waltgoodridge.com/books/