Rural Wage Employment in Developing Countries

Theory, Evidence, and Policy

Author: Carlos Oya

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 364

View: 925

There is a striking scarcity of work conducted on rural labour markets in the developing world, particularly in Africa. This book aims to fill this gap by bringing together a group of contributors who boast substantial field experience researching rural wage employment in various developing countries. It provides critical perspectives on mainstream approaches to rural/agrarian development, and analysis of agrarian change and rural transformations from a long-term perspective. This book challenges the notion that rural areas in low- and middle-income countries are dominated by self-employment. It purports that this conventional view is largely due to the application of conceptual frameworks and statistical conventions that are ill-equipped to capture labour market participation. The contributions in this book offer a variety of methodological lessons for the study of rural labour markets, focusing in particular on the use of mixed methods in micro-level field research, and more emphasis on capturing occupation multiplicity. The emphasis on context, history, and specific configurations of power relations affecting rural labour market outcomes are key and reoccurring features of this book. This analysis will help readers think about policy options to improve the quantity and quality of rural wage employment, their impact on the poorest rural people, and their political feasibility in each context.

Rural Wage Employment in Developing Countries

Theory, Evidence, and Policy

Author: Carlos Oya

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 364

View: 941

There is a striking scarcity of work conducted on rural labour markets in the developing world, particularly in Africa. This book aims to fill this gap by bringing together a group of contributors who boast substantial field experience researching rural wage employment in various developing countries. It provides critical perspectives on mainstream approaches to rural/agrarian development, and analysis of agrarian change and rural transformations from a long-term perspective. This book challenges the notion that rural areas in low- and middle-income countries are dominated by self-employment. It purports that this conventional view is largely due to the application of conceptual frameworks and statistical conventions that are ill-equipped to capture labour market participation. The contributions in this book offer a variety of methodological lessons for the study of rural labour markets, focusing in particular on the use of mixed methods in micro-level field research, and more emphasis on capturing occupation multiplicity. The emphasis on context, history, and specific configurations of power relations affecting rural labour market outcomes are key and reoccurring features of this book. This analysis will help readers think about policy options to improve the quantity and quality of rural wage employment, their impact on the poorest rural people, and their political feasibility in each context.

The Future of Rural Youth in Developing Countries Tapping the Potential of Local Value Chains

Tapping the Potential of Local Value Chains

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 100

View: 354

Rural youth constitute over half of the youth population in developing countries and will continue to increase in the next 35 years. Without rural transformation and green industrialisation happening fast enough to create more wage employment in a sustainable manner, the vast majority of rural ...

Wages and Employment in Africa

Author: Dipak Mazumdar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 366

View: 486

This title was first published in 2002: Analyzing labour market trends in sub-Saharan Africa since 1970, this volume employs data collected from the International Labor Organization (ILO), United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) and World Bank (the RPED surveys). It examines the economics of the labour market against the presistent decline in real wages over some 20 years in some of these countries. Setting the African story against the background of wage-employment trends in other regions of the world, the author proceeds to examine the impact of this decline on the rural-urban earnings gap. The consequences of the declining wage levels on the lifetime earnings of workers and on trends in labour productivity are then discussed, followed by an analysis of the employment and wage structure in African manufacturing firms.

Economic Growth & Employment Structure

A Study of Labour Outmigration from Agriculture in Developing Countries

Author: Ajit Kumar Ghose

Publisher: International Labour Organization

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 99

View: 99

Agricultural employment, rural migration, trends, developing countries.

The Future of Rural Youth in Developing Countries

Tapping the Potential of Local Value Chains

Author: Collectif

Publisher: OECD

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 100

View: 145

Rural youth constitute over half of the youth population in developing countries and will continue to increase in the next 35 years. Without rural transformation and green industrialisation happening fast enough to create more wage employment in a sustainable manner, the vast majority of rural youth in developing countries have little choice but to work in poorly paid and unstable jobs or to migrate. As household dietary pattern is changing, new demands by a rising middle class for diversified and processed foods are creating new job opportunities in food-related manufacturing and services. Agro-food industries are labour-intensive and can create jobs in rural areas as well as ensure food security. Yet the employment landscape along the agro-food value chains is largely underexploited. This study looks at local actions and national policies that can promote agro-food value chains and other rural non-farm activities using a youth employment lens.

Trends in Employment and Labour Incomes

Case Studies on Developing Countries

Author: International Labour Office

Publisher: International Labour Organisation

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 162

View: 240

Reducing Rural Poverty in Asia

Challenges and Opportunities for Microenterprises and Public Employment Schemes

Author: Nurul Islam

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 404

View: 133

Fight rural poverty through the creation of significant policy mechanisms, microenterprises, and employment programs The majority of the world’s poor live in Asia, and most of these live in rural areas. These areas are also infamous for the food insecurity and malnutrition associated with poverty. Making even a modest dent in rural Asian poverty has the potential to realize large gains in global human development. Reducing Rural Poverty in Asia provides evidence-based guidelines for policymakers in developing countries, for researchers focusing on development problems, and for the international development assistance community in the continuing search for ways to effectively reduce poverty in the developing world. Detailed examinations are clearly presented on the efforts for poverty alleviation through microenterprise development and rural public employment programs that focus on public works and household/small-scale industries. Asia-based case studies of various microenterprises and rural public employment projects reveal important policy mechanisms and the effectiveness of each poverty reduction measure. Tables, figures, and relevant glossaries make unfamiliar terms and difficult information easy to understand. Part I of Reducing Rural Poverty in Asia: presents a framework for the analysis of rural microenterprises with a focus on microfinance highlights the main findings of country-specific case studies suggests guidelines for an appropriate strategy for the provision of microfinance to reach the poor, alleviate poverty, and create financial stability analyzes the issues relating to public wage employment schemes and the principal findings of the case studies draws policy conclusions for the formulation of effective public employment schemes Part II of Reducing Rural Poverty in Asia presents case studies conducted in India, Bangladesh, and the Philippines—along with revealing conclusions. These studies include: the SIDBI Foundation for Micro Credit in India—including the continuing problem of the exclusion of the poorest the Maharashtra Rural Credit Project in India and concerns about the sustainability of the financial infrastructure the Small Enterprises Development Project in Bangladesh and the high rate of return on capital from financed enterprises the successes of the Grameen Uddog, Agrani Bank Micro-Enterprise Development Unit (MEDU), and Kishoreganj Community-Based Projects in Bangladesh the income-stabilizing role of the Employment Guarantee Scheme in Maharashtra, India guidelines for the Public Works Employment policy and implementation in the Philippines Reducing Rural Poverty in Asia is a concise overview of the crucial research undertaken at the request of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and makes this a vital resource for researchers, educators, students, policymakers, and development experts working towards the goal of poverty reduction.

Decent Work Indicators for agriculture and rural areas

Conceptual issues, data collection challenges and possible areas for improvement

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Law

Page: 80

View: 394

This background paper assesses the relevance of concepts and indicators of decent work for rural areas and employment in agriculture. It examines some of the main reasons for the lack of data on decent work, and proposes a selection of more relevant indicators as well as some ways to improve data collection.

Microeconomic Issues of Labor Markets in Developing Countries

Analysis and Policy Implications

Author: Dipak Mazumdar

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 118

View: 590

This paper deals with labor market structures in developing countries and the impact of government policies on rural and urban labor markets. The central concern in analyses of employment is absorption of labor. Governments try to influence the demand for labor so that more members of the labor force are absorbed into productive employment. Employment outcomes are often the by-products of government policies that affect economic growth as a whole. This paper concentrates on factors that influence the structure and functioning of labor markets. In Chapter 1, a schematic picture of labor markets is presented. Chapters 2 and 3 analyze the salient features of the workings of rural and urban labor markets and discuss some important government policies that affect the functioning of these markets. The paper concludes that Government intervention in both rural and urban labor markets has often been less than successful, sometimes because their policies were based on incorrect assumptions. At other times, these policies have achieved less because the government also adopted other policies that tended to contradict the goal of providing jobs.

Working Through the Crisis

Jobs and Policies in Developing Countries During the Great Recession

Author: Arup Banerji

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 221

View: 867

Working through the Crisis documents how the Great Recession affected employment outcomes in developingcountries and how those countries' governments responded. The chapters comprise a unique compilation ofdata and analysis from different sources, including an inventory of policies implemented during the crisis,among countries in Latin America, Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa.The effects of the crisis depended on the size of the shock, the channels through which it was manifested,the structure of institutions in the country—especially labor institutions—and the specific policy responsesundertaken. Although these factors resulted in differing outcomes among the countries studied, commonpatterns emerge. In terms of impacts, overall adjustments involved reductions in earnings growth rather than inemployment growth, although the quality of employment was also affected. Youth were doubly affected, beingmore likely to experience unemployment and reduced wages. Men seemed to have been more severelyaffected than women. In most countries where data are available, there were no major differences betweenskilled and unskilled workers or between those living in urban and rural areas.In terms of policy responses, this crisis was characterized by a high prevalence of active interventions in the labormarket and the expansion of income protection systems, as well as countercyclical stimulus measures. Whentimed well and sufficiently large, these stimulus measures were effective in reducing adverse employmenteffects.Specific sectoral stimulus policies also had beneficial effects when they were well targeted. However, socialprotection and labor market policy responses were often ad hoc, and not in line with the types of adjustmentsworkers experienced. As a result, these policies and programs were typically biased toward formal sector workersand did not necessarily reach those who needed them the most. In retrospect, there is a sense that developingcountries were not well prepared to deal with the effects of the Great Recession, and that the further developmentof social protection systems is crucial to better protect workers and their families from the next crisis.

Development Centre Studies Unlocking the Potential of Youth Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries From Subsistence to Performance

From Subsistence to Performance

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 76

View: 413

Demographic pressure and the youth bulge in the developing world pose a major employment challenge. This situation is exacerbated by insufficient job creation, scarce formal wage employment opportunities and vulnerability in the workplace.

Trade and Employment in Developing Countries, Volume 3

Synthesis and Conclusions

Author: Anne O. Krueger

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN:

Category: Education

Page: 230

View: 497

The NBER project on alternative trade strategies and employment analyzed the extent to which employment and income distribution are affected by the choice of trade strategies and by the interaction of trade policies with domestic policies and market distortions. This book, the third and final volume to come from that project, brings together the theory underlying the trade strategies-employment relation and the empirical evidence emanating from the project.

Employment in Developing Nations

Report on a Ford Foundation Study

Author: Edgar O. Edwards

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 428

View: 803

Improving Rural Wages in India

Author: Shahidur R. Khandker

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Agricultural wages

Page: 25

View: 680

Do public programs and infrastructure to promote agricultural growth improve real agricultural wages and thus reduce rural poverty? Rural electrification, roads, and banks do - because they increase nonfarm employment. Educational infrastructure, public irrigation, and regulation of markets do not, although they raise agricultural output.

Three Essays on Labor and Government Policy in Developing Countries

Author: Joshua D. Merfeld

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 9

View: 632

In this dissertation, I examine household labor allocation in two developing countries: India and Malawi. I focus on the interaction between government policies and household labor allocation decisions. The first and second papers look at labor allocation and an Indian government program, while the first and third papers explore labor allocation to non-farm self-employment. In the first paper, I analyze the effects of an increase in the rural wage in India -- induced by the government's Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) -- on non-farm self-employment. Households significantly decrease labor allocation to non-farm self-employment following implementation of the program. Moreover, this effect is higher in areas with higher rainfall variation, which I use as a proxy for agricultural production risk. Taken together, these findings support the view that many non-farm enterprises are subsistence enterprises, started due to a lack of remunerative labor opportunities and to diversify production risk. In the second paper, I continue analyzing the effects of NREGS. Using a unique dataset with GPS location data, I show that the wage effects of the program are spatially heterogeneous. The wage effects are largest on the interior of treated districts, far from untreated areas. In contrast, areas on the border between treated and untreated areas see no wage increase at all. Estimates suggest labor is mobile on a daily basis in a radius of around 15 to 20 kilometers. In the third paper, coauthor Peter Brummund and I study labor allocation across agricultural and non-farm production in Malawian households. Economic theory suggests that households should equate the marginal revenue product of labor (MRPL) across productive activities within the household. We test this assumption by estimating production functions for agricultural and non-farm production. We show that MRPL in agricultural production is significantly higher than MRPL in non-farm production. Moreover, consistent with a large body of literature on the sectoral productivity gap, we show that the average product of labor is higher in non-farm production. These results suggest a rethinking of how we measure the sectoral productivity gap may be warranted.

The Labor Market in Zimbabwe

Historical Trends and an Evaluation of Recent Policy

Author: Peter R. Fallon

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Labor policy

Page: 43

View: 893