At its height the Roman Empire stretched across Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, maintained by an army of modest size but great diversity. In popular culture these soldiers are often portrayed in a generic fashion, but continuing research indicates significant variations in Roman armour and equipment not only between different legions and the provincially-raised auxiliary cohorts that made up half of the army, but also between different regions within the empire. With reference to the latest archaeological and documentary evidence Dr D'Amato investigates how Roman Army units in the Western provinces were equipped, exploring the local influences and traditions that caused the variations in attire.
The appearance of Roman soldiers in the 3rd century AD has long been a matter of debate and uncertainty, largely thanks to the collapse of central control and perpetual civil war between the assassination of Severus Alexander in 235 and the accession of the great Diocletian in 284. During those years no fewer than 51 men were proclaimed as emperors, some lasting only a few days. Despite this apparent chaos, however, the garrisons of the Western Provinces held together, by means of localized organization and the recruitment of 'barbarians' to fill the ranks. They still constituted an army in being when Diocletian took over and began the widespread reforms that rebuilt the Empire – though an Empire that their forefathers would hardly have recognized. Fully illustrated with specially chosen colour plates, this book reveals the uniforms, equipment and deployments of Roman soldiers in the most chaotic years of the Empire.
Between the reigns of Augustus and Septimius Severus, the Eastern provinces of the Roman Empire frequently saw brutal fighting, most notably during the conquest of Dacia by Trajan, the suppression of the Great Revolt in Judea and intermittent clashes with Rome's great rival Parthia. In these wars, Roman soldiers had to fight in a range of different climates and terrains, from the deserts of the Middle East to the islands of the eastern Mediterranean. Using full-colour artwork, this book examines the variation of equipment and uniforms both between different military units, and in armies stationed in different regions of the Empire. Using evidence drawn from recent archaeological finds, it paints a vivid portrait of Roman army units in the Eastern provinces in the first two centuries of the Imperial period.
A collection of 25 international papers dedicated to Eric Birley, on the subject of his principal interest, the Roman army. The essays focus on hierarchy and rank within the army and its position within the social and political structure of the empire. The book begins with a discussion of the valued contribution of seasoned volunteers and middle ranking officers and an assessment of the possibilities for reward and social position on retirement. Other subjects include inexperienced officers, senator generals, military service and Principilaires. The book finally assesses the contribution of the Roman army to the societies of Rome, Spain, Gaul, Germania, Dalmatia, Moesia Superior and Egypt. The meticulously detailed essays vary from broad discussions of the army as a whole to specific studies of individuals drawn from all ranks. Contributors include Lukas de Blois, David J Breeze, Anthony R Birley, Michael Redd�, Yann le Bohec, John J Wilkes, Michael P Speidel and Fritz Mitthof. English, German, French, Italian text.
This companion provides an extensive account of the Roman army, exploring its role in Roman politics and society as well as the reasons for its effectiveness as a fighting force. An extensive account of the Roman army, from its beginnings to its transformation in the later Roman Empire Examines the army as a military machine – its recruitment, training, organization, tactics and weaponry Explores the relationship of the army to Roman politics, economics and society more broadly Considers the geography and climate of the lands in which the Romans fought Each chapter is written by a leading expert in a particular subfield and takes account of the latest scholarly and archaeological research in that area
This investigation is concerned with the accuracy of Hadrians reputation as a prolific builder in the western provincial cities. The pursuit of this not only reveals more of Hadrians personal building, but also that all construction work during this period is shown to have contributed to a general perception of intense and continuous building during Hadrians reign. The study takes in all the available Hadrianic evidence for the western provinces, not only of civic building, but also of road building and military building. In addition this study offers a comparison between building during the reigns of Hadrian, Trajan and Antoninus Pius allowing a clearer perspective of Hadrianic building. All the available epigraphic, archaeological and numismatic evidence has been sought, especially of building initiated by provincial and local administrative officials, in an endeavour to understand the effect of the implementation of Hadrians military and urbanisation policies. As urbanisation was in its infancy in many of these western provinces, an examination was conducted of the availability of building supplies and its ability to support civic building programmes. Hadrians personal contribution in this regard has been a major consideration and all building, including road building, generated by imperial military policy has been detailed. Since a satisfactory conclusion of Hadrianic building could not be reached in isolation, a comparison was made of similar building and public works during the reigns of Hadrians predecessor and successor, Trajan and Antoninus Pius. In the final analysis, even though the type and extent of building varied considerably between the various provinces, it is clear that the volume of civic Hadrianic building works exceeded Trajanic by more than thirty percent and Antonine building by fifty percent. The author concludes that Hadrian fully deserved his reputation as a builder and benefactor given by the ancient sources, if not of every city, certainly of many cities in the western provinces.
The Roman army is remarkable for its detailed organisation and professional structure. It not only extended and protected Rome's territorial empire which was the basis of Western civilisation, but also maintained the politcal power of the emperors. The army was an integral part of the society and life of the empire and illustrated many aspects of Roman government. This sourcebook presents literary and epigraphic material, papyri and coins which illustrate the life of the army from recruitment and in the field, to peacetime and the community. It is designed as a basic tool for students of the Roman army and Roman history in general.
Studies in the Ruler Cult of the Western Provinces of the Roman Empire
Author: Duncan Fishwick
This original study is the first attempt to piece together an overall picture of the origins and historical development of provincial cults in the Latin west in the period from the reign of Augustus down to the mid third century A.D.
A Study of Roman Military Policy and the Barbarians, Ca. 375-425 A.D.
Author: Thomas S. Burns
Publisher: Indiana University Press
Barbarians serving in the Roman army, like all other Roman soldiers, faced difficult choices as political events buffeted their leaders and threatened their livelihoods. Honorius, Stilicho, Alaric, Galla Placidia, Constantius III and usurpers like Constantine III and Attalus left their imprints upon these years - coloring the fabric of political and spiritual life as much as they affected military affairs.