The Rhabdoviruses

Author: Robert R. Wagner

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 544

View: 833

The viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae have an exceedingly broad host range and are widely distributed throughout the animal and plant king doms. Animal rhabdoviruses infect and often cause disease in insects, fish, and mammals, including man. The prototype rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus !VSV), has been extensively studied and provides perhaps the best model system for studying negative-strand viruses. The popularity of VSV as a model system is to a considerable extent due to its relative simplicity and to its rapid growth, generally to high titer, in many cell types ranging from yeast to human. The nucleocapsids of these viruses also carry transcriptional and replicative functions that are expressed in cell-free systems. The first RNA-dependent RNA poly merase was described in VSV and its G protein provided an early model system for studying the synthesis, processing, and membrane insertion of mammalian glycoproteins. VSV is also highly cytopathogenic and has been studied quite extensively for its capacity to kill cells and to shut off cellular macromolecular synthesis. Even earlier, VSV was discovered to be highly susceptible to the action of interferons and has served ever since as a means for quantitating the activity of interferons. To my way of thinking, the spark that ignited the explosion of re search in this field was struck at the First International Colloquium on Rhabdoviruses, attended by 30 or so participants in Roscoff, France, in June 1972.

The World of Rhabdoviruses

Author: Z.F. Fu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 211

View: 131

This volume reviews the unique and common features of rhabdoviruses, which have a very wide host range and are associated with human diseases and also infect domestic livestock and agricultural plants, causing enormous economic loss.

Nonsegmented Negative Strand Viruses

Paramyxoviruses and Rhabdoviruses

Author: David H.L. Bishop

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 590

View: 505

Nonsegmented Negative Strand Viruses: Paramyxoviruses and Rhabdoviruses consists of papers presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Negative Strand Viruses, held at Hilton Head, S.C., on September 11-17, 1983.This book specifically contains papers on negative strand virus families with nonsegmented genomes, paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses. This reference shows the advances in the research of the two virus families, paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses. It also illuminates the various stages in the strategy of negative strand virus infections, including adsorption, penetration, mRNA transcription, translation, RNA replication, morphogenesis, and virus release. The biology of virus infection and host response are also addressed.

Rhabdoviruses

Volume I

Author: D. H. L. Bishop

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 204

View: 488

The goal of this book series has been to provide an overview of rhabdovirology as a whole (including an appraisal of current research findings), suitable for students, teachers, and, research workers. To realize this goal many of the research leaders in the different disciplines of rhabdovirology were asked to contribute chapters.

Rhabdoviruses

Volume I

Author: D. H. L. Bishop

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 204

View: 256

The goal of this book series has been to provide an overview of rhabdovirology as a whole (including an appraisal of current research findings), suitable for students, teachers, and, research workers. To realize this goal many of the research leaders in the different disciplines of rhabdovirology were asked to contribute chapters.

Rhabdoviruses

Author: Bishop

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 351

The goal of this book series has been to provide an overview of rhabdovirology as a whole (including an appraisal of current research findings), suitable for students, teachers, and, research workers. To realize this goal many of the research leaders in the different disciplines of rhabdovirology were asked to contribute chapters.

The Rhabdoviruses

Author: Robert R. Wagner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 544

View: 791

The viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae have an exceedingly broad host range and are widely distributed throughout the animal and plant king doms. Animal rhabdoviruses infect and often cause disease in insects, fish, and mammals, including man. The prototype rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus !VSV), has been extensively studied and provides perhaps the best model system for studying negative-strand viruses. The popularity of VSV as a model system is to a considerable extent due to its relative simplicity and to its rapid growth, generally to high titer, in many cell types ranging from yeast to human. The nucleocapsids of these viruses also carry transcriptional and replicative functions that are expressed in cell-free systems. The first RNA-dependent RNA poly merase was described in VSV and its G protein provided an early model system for studying the synthesis, processing, and membrane insertion of mammalian glycoproteins. VSV is also highly cytopathogenic and has been studied quite extensively for its capacity to kill cells and to shut off cellular macromolecular synthesis. Even earlier, VSV was discovered to be highly susceptible to the action of interferons and has served ever since as a means for quantitating the activity of interferons. To my way of thinking, the spark that ignited the explosion of re search in this field was struck at the First International Colloquium on Rhabdoviruses, attended by 30 or so participants in Roscoff, France, in June 1972.

Rhabdoviruses

Molecular Taxonomy, Evolution, Genomics, Ecology, Host-vector Interactions, Cytopathology, and Control

Author: Ralf Georg Dietzgen

Publisher: Horizon Scientific Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 120

Rhabdoviruses are a diverse family of single stranded, negative sense RNA viruses that can successfully utilize a myriad of ecological niches, ranging from plants and insects to fish and mammals. This virus family includes pathogens, such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of tremendous public health, veterinary, and agricultural significance. Due to the relative simplicity of their genomes and morphology, in recent years rhabdoviruses have become powerful model systems for studying molecular virology. Written by a select group of world-renowned virologists, this book reviews all of the most recent advances in rhabdovirology, providing a timely overview of the field. Most contributions are written from a molecular and genomic perspective and contain expert insights upon which to base future research efforts. The topics covered include: morphology * genome organization * transcription * virus replication * taxonomy * characterization * virus evolution * vesiculovirus * lyssavirus * ephemeroviruses * fish novirhabdoviruses * the sigma viruses of Drosophila * virus-host protein interaction of plant-adapted rhabdoviruses * cereal-infecting rhabdoviruses * rabies prevention and control, including lyssavirus vaccine development. The book is a "must read" for all virologists working on these and related negative sense RNA viruses. It is recommended for all biology, veterinary, and medical libraries.

Rhabdoviruses

Volume II

Author: Bishop

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 245

View: 411

The goal of this book series has been to provide an overview of rhabdovirology as a whole (including an appraisal of current research findings), suitable for students, teachers, and, research workers. To realize this goal many of the research leaders in the different disciplines of rhabdovirology were asked to contribute chapters.

The Molecular Basis of the Interactions of Rhabdoviruses with Their Insect and Plant Hosts

Author: Chi-Wei Tsai

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Rhabdoviruses

Page: 170

View: 649

Abstract: Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) and Maize mosaic virus (MMV) are insect transmitted rhabdoviruses. These viruses invade and replicate in cells of various tissues in insects and plants. Therefore, insects are not only vectors but also replication hosts for rhabdoviruses. Sigma rhabdovirus only infects Drosophila flies and is transmitted to the progeny of flies through germinal cells. MFSV, MMV, and Sigma virus, and interactions with their hosts provide unique systems for characterization of molecular factors determining rhabdovirus host ranges. The MFSV genome encodes seven genes on the antigenomic strand, whereas the MMV genome encodes six genes. More information about functions of MFVS and MMV proteins was obtained through in planta cellular localization studies. The results showed that the MFSV N, 4, M, and MMV P proteins target the nuclei of plant cells. In addition, the rhabdovirus N and P proteins interact, and the interaction is specific to cognate proteins of each virus. MFVS and MMV replicate in the nucleus and assemble at the inner nuclear membrane of cell, and therefore nuclear import of viral proteins is critical to complete virus morphogenesis. Using virus-induced gene silencing combined with in planta cellular localization, silencing of Importin alphas inhibits the nuclear localization of the MFSV N protein and N-P complex in plant cells, suggesting that these two proteins are dependent on Importin alphas for nuclear import in plants. Microarray studies showed that Sigma virus infection triggers different immune responses in drosophila compared to the other drosophila viruses. The Imd signaling pathway was identified as the main component of the drosophila anti-Sigma virus response. This is the first comparative study showing that viruses can induce different immune pathways in drosophila, similarly to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, which activate the Imd and Toll pathways, respectively. A comparison of how different insects, including drosophila, leafhoppers and planthoppers, respond to rhabdovirus infections should prove interesting.

Characterization of Two Plant Rhabdoviruses Not Previously Reported in South Africa

Author: Renate Luise Lamprecht

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 801

Two previously uncharacterized plant rhabdoviruses, infecting Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers) and soybean (Glycine max) respectively, have been found in South Africa. To determine the morphology and virion size of these viruses, embedded ultra-thin sections of infected plant samples were observed under a transmission electron microscope. The virion distribution within the cell, the bulletshaped morphology and the virion sizes indicated that both these viruses might belong to the Rhabdoviridae family. Degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed by alignment of the polymerase gene sequences of several plant rhabdoviruses in order to identify conserved regions. Standard PCR and sequencing protocols were used to determine a partial polymerase gene sequence of the viruses that was then compared to the most closely related sequences available on Genbank. The analysis indicated that the Cynodon rhabdovirus was most closely related to known nucleorhabdoviruses: and the rhabdovirus-infecting soybean (Soybean blotching mosaic virus proposed name) was closely related to other known cytorhabdoviruses. These results indicate that both the viruses are new members to the Nucleo- and Cytorhabdovirus genera, respectively.

Biology and Pathogenesis of Rhabdo- and Filoviruses

Author: Asit K Pattnaik

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 640

View: 258

Rhabdoviruses and Filoviruses are single-stranded, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, many of which cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Certain members of these virus families have been used as excellent model systems to understand the molecular biology of replication, host responses to infections, and viral countermeasures. Rhabdoviruses have also been used as vaccine vectors as well as oncolytic agents. Studies on Filoviruses have now provided significant insights into how they enter susceptible cells, replicate and cause disease, and also how they evade the host's immune mechanisms. This book addresses the most recent findings on Rhabdovirus and Filovirus structure, replication mechanisms, host cell responses to virus infections and viral countermeasures. Chapters on emerging viruses as well as approaches for therapeutic interventions have also been included. This book represents an authoritative text that brings together the most recent advances on the cellular and molecular biology of Rhabdo- and Filoviruses, including mechanisms of pathogenesis. Contents:Overview of Rhabdo– and Filoviruses (Asit K Pattnaik and Michael A Whitt)Rhabdovirus Structure (Ming Luo)The Pathway of VSV Entry into Cells (Shem Johnson and Jean Gruenberg)Rhabdovirus Glycoproteins (Yves Gaudin and Michael A Whitt)VSV RNA Transcription and Replication (Jacques Perrault)Host Cell Functions in Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication (Phat X Dinh, Anshuman Das, and Asit K Pattnaik)Cytopathogenesis of Rhabdoviruses (Douglas S Lyles)Assembly and Budding of Rhabdo– and Filoviruses (Ziying Han and Ronald N Harty)Rhabdoviruses as Vaccine Vectors: From Initial Development to Clinical Trials (John K Rose and David K Clarke)Oncolytic Rhabdoviruses (Nicole E Forbes and John C Bell)Use of Rhabdoviruses to Study Neural Circuitry (Melanie Ginger, Guillaume Bony, Matthias Haberl, and Andreas Frick)Evolution of Rhabdo– and Filoviruses (Isabel S Novella, John B Presloid, and R Travis Taylor)Emerging Rhabdoviruses (Imke Steffen and Graham Simmons)Rabies Virus Replication and Pathogenesis (Andrew W Hudacek and Matthias J Schnell)Activation and Evasion of Innate Immune Response by Rhabdoviruses (Karl-Klaus Conzelmann)Rabies Virus Vaccines (Ying Huang, Clement W Gnanadurai, and Zhen F Fu)Filovirus Structure and Morphogenesis (Timothy F Booth, Daniel R Beniac, Melissa J Rabb, and Lindsey L Lamboo)Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Filovirus Infections (Logan Banadyga and Hideki Ebihara)Filovirus Entry into Susceptible Cells (Rohit K Jangra, Eva Mittler, and Kartik Chandran)Filovirus Transcription & Replication (Kristina Brauburger, Laure R Deflubé, and Elke Muhlberger)Innate Immune Evasion Mechanisms of Filoviruses (Christopher F Basler, Gaya K Amarasinghe, and Daisy W Leung)Vaccines and Antivirals for Filoviruses (Chad E Mire and Thomas W Geisbe) Readership: Investigators, graduate students, and post-graduate researchers in the field of RNA virology. Key Features:The book describes the most recent advances in our understanding of cellular and molecular aspects of replication and pathogenic mechanisms of these two important viral pathogensUnlike other existing textbooks published earlier, this book brings together several major topics of research such as replication, host response to viral replication and viral countermeasures, viral evolution and emerging viruses, viral vectors, vaccines and antivirals, etcThe chapters in the book are written by renowned researchers in these fieldsKeywords:Negative-Strand RNA Virus;Mononegavirales;Rhabdovirus;Filovirus;VSV;Rabies Virus;Marburg Virus;Ebola Virus;Replication and Transcription;Virus Structure;Viral Pathogenesis;Epidemiology;Virus Entry;Virus Assembly and Budding;Cytopathogenesis;Neuronal Tracers;Viral Vectors;Oncolytic Viruses;Evolution;Emerging Viruses;Innate Immune Responses;Vaccines;Antivirals

RHABDOVIRUSES

Author: David H. L. Bishop

Publisher: CRC-Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 815

Rhabdoviruses

Author: David H. L. Bishop

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: SCIENCE

Page: 258

View: 399

"The goal of this book series has been to provide an overview of rhabdovirology as a whole (including an appraisal of current research findings), suitable for students, teachers, and, research workers. To realize this goal many of the research leaders in the different disciplines of rhabdovirology were asked to contribute chapters."--Provided by publisher.