The Daniel S. Lehrman Memorial Symposia Series will publish the proceedings of symposia devoted to the evolution, development, and organization of behavior. These various symposia will bring together at intervals scientists studying problems from each of these view points. The aim is to attempt to integrate our knowledge derived from these different sources and to familiarize scientists working on similar behavior patterns with the work of their colleagues in related fields of study. Each volume, therefore, will be devoted to a specific topic in the field of animal behavior, which will be explored with respect to its evolutionary aspects, including the adaptive nature of the behav ior; with respect to its developmental aspects, including neural, hor monal, and experiential influences; and with respect to the analysis of features of organization, including motivational, perceptual, and motor aspects and their physiological bases. It is our feeling that the most appropriate memorial to our colleague and close friend, Daniel S. Lehrman, is the continuation of his valuable contributions toward integrating these approaches to the study of animal behavior, which he pursued so effectively during his own life. Daniel S. Lehrman's lifelong love and study of animal behavior gave us a wealth of new insights into reproductive behavior and evolution. It is therefore appropriate that the first symposium of this series is devoted to recent advances in this field.
Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates focuses on the evolution of reproductive behavior in female vertebrates ranging from fish to birds and humans, including issues of mate choice and other factors underlying female attitudes toward males. It also looks at the evolution of mating systems; the co-evolution of the sexes; sex-role reversal; reproductive competition between females; maternal behavior; and how females enhance the investment received by their offspring from others. It also considers other social behaviors that influence the nature of affiliative associations between females. Organized into three parts encompassing 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of behavioral biology and sources of variation in female reproductive success. It then discusses the establishment and maintenance of sex biases, sex differences mediated by sexual selection, constraints on female choice in the mottled sculpin, mate choice by females in sexual selection of bird song, and female manipulation of male avoidance of cuckoldry behavior in the ring dove. The reader is also introduced to the evolution of polyandry in shorebirds; reproductive strategies in human females; social and health-seeking behaviors of Taiwanese women; female roles in cooperatively breeding acorn woodpeckers; altruism in coati bands; cooperation and reproductive competition among female African elephants; mate choice in matrilineal macaque groups; and reproductive competition and cooperation among female yellow baboons. This book is a valuable resource for scientists and behavioral biologists, as well as lay people whose interests span a variety of fields.
A central aspect of human adaptation - reproductive behaviour - is studied through the multiple lenses of philosophy, biology, psychology and anthropology, all united by an evolutionary perspective. Although reproduction is an intrinsic mechanism of evolution, this colloquium shows that reproductive behaviours yield new significance for evolution theory when re-examined in a multidisciplinary setting. This volume focuses on explication of the adaptive, evolved nature of our own reproduction with topics such as how mate choice shaped human nature; symmetry in mate selection; the evolution of moral dispositions; and the sexist order of the bonobos. This look at reproduction as a mechanism of human evolution reveals underlying physiologic mechanisms, as well as comparative and interesting cross-cultural aspects that emerge from social sciences and anthropology.
This book presents the first unified conceptual and statistical framework for understanding the evolution of reproductive strategies. Using the concept of the opportunity for sexual selection, the authors illustrate how and why sexual selection, though restricted to one sex and opposed in the other, is one of the strongest and fastest of all evolutionary forces. They offer a statistical framework for studying mating system evolution and apply it to patterns of alternative mating strategies. In doing so, they provide a method for quantifying how the strength of sexual selection is affected by the ecological and life history processes that influence females' spatial and temporal clustering and reproductive schedules. Directly challenging verbal evolutionary models that attempt to explain reproductive behavior without quantitative reference to evolutionary genetics, this book establishes a more solid theoretical foundation for the field. Among the weaknesses the authors find in the existing data is the apparent ubiquity of condition-dependent mating tactics. They identify factors likely to contribute to the evolution of alternative mating strategies--which they argue are more common than generally believed--and illustrate how to measure the strength of selection acting on them. Lastly, they offer predictions on the covariation of mating systems and strategies, consider the underlying developmental biology behind male polyphenism, and propose directions for future research. Informed by genetics, this is a comprehensive and rigorous new approach to explaining mating systems and strategies that will influence a wide swath of evolutionary biology.
Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects explores the biological mechanisms underlying intrasexual reproductive competition as a driving force in sexual selection in insects. The book contains papers presented at a symposium on reproductive behavior in insects, held at the 15th International Congress of Entomology in Washington, D.C., in 1976. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with a historical background on sexual selection theory and some of the principal conceptual advances that have been made since Charles Darwin (1871) posited that a sexual character was a characteristic possessed by only one sex and not the other. It then introduces the reader to differences in patterns of sexual selection and how they affect the reproductive success of individuals, male-female mating relationships, and mate choice by females. The book also discusses the evolution of mating strategies in insects, touching on concepts such as parental investment, female choice, and sexual conflict. Later chapters focus on winglessness, fighting, and dimorphism in male fig wasps and other insects, along with agonistic behavior among males of Achias australis, the function of horns in beetles, and the evolution of alternative male reproductive strategies in field crickets. The book also looks into the courtship and mating behavior of insects, and then concludes with an analysis of insect life histories in order to elucidate the biological aspects of the male-female phenomenon. This book is an essential reading for biologists and chemists.