This book explores both the state of the art and the latest developments in QKD. It describes the fundamental concepts and practical aspects of QKD from a viewpoint of information security and quantum channel efficiency improvement. The purpose of this book is to extend and update the knowledge of the readers in the dynamically changing field of QKD. The authors attempt to present in detail their results of scientific research, which is divided into two sections - Modern QKD Technologies and Quantum Channel Construction. It will be useful for researchers, engineers, graduates, and doctoral students working in quantum cryptography and information security-related areas.
Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.
This book is part of the book-series dedicated to the advances of neutrosophic theories and their applications, started by the author in 1998. Its aim is to present the last developments in the field. This is the second extended and improved edition of Neutrosophic Perspectives (September 2017; first edition was published in June 2017). For the first time, we now introduce: — Neutrosophic Duplets and the Neutrosophic Duplet Structures; — Neutrosophic Multisets (as an extension of the classical multisets); — Neutrosophic Spherical Numbers; — Neutrosophic Overnumbers / Undernumbers / Offnumbers; — Neutrosophic Indeterminacy of Second Type; — Neutrosophic Hybrid Operators (where the heterogeneous t-norms and t-conorms may be used in designing neutrosophic aggregations); — Neutrosophic Triplet Weak Set (and con-sequently we have renamed the previous Neutros-ophic Triplet Set (2014-2016) as Neutrosophic Triplet Strong Set in order to distinguish them); — Neutrosophic Perfect Triplet; — Neutrosophic Imperfect Triplet; — Neutrosophic triplet relation of equivalence; — Two Neutrosophic Friends; — n Neutrosophic Friends; — Neutrosophic Triplet Loop; — Neutrosophic Triplet Function; — Neutrosophic Modal Logic; — and Neutrosophic Hedge Algebras. The Refined Neutrosophic Set / Logic / Probability were introduced in 2013 by F. Smarandache. Since year 2016 a new interest has been manifested by researchers for the Neutrosophic Triplets and their corresponding Neutros-ophic Triplet Algebraic Structures (introduced by F. Smarandache & M. Ali). Subtraction and Division of Neutrosophic Numbers were introduced by F. Smarandache - 2016, and Jun Ye – 2017. We also present various new applications in: neutrosophic multi-criteria decision-making, neutrosophic psychology, neutrosophic geographical function (the equatorial virtual line), neutrosophic probability in target identification, neutrosophic dynamic systems, neutrosophic quantum computers, neutrosophic theory of evolution, and neutrosophic triplet structures in our everyday life. Keywords: neutrosophy, neutrosophic duplets, neutrosophic duplet structures, neutrosophic multisets, neutrosophic hedge algebras, neutrosophic multi-criteria decision-making, neutrosophic psychology, neutrosophic geographical function, neutrosophic probability in target identification,
With a clear writing style and matter-of-fact approach, this rigorous yet accessible introduction to quantum computing is designed for readers with a solid mathematical background but limited knowledge of physics and quantum mechanics. Using a methodical approach and an abundance of worked examples, this handbook delivers a thorough introduction to the quantum circuit model, including the mathematical formalism required for quantum computing. Concentrates on the quantum circuit model to make complex subject matter more accessible. Provides a phenomenological introduction to quantum computing, encouraging readers to view the subject as a fundamentally new approach to computing. Detailed presentation of quantum algorithms demonstrates the logic behind the development of Deutsch's problem, quantum Fourier transform, Shor's factoring algorithm, Simon's algorithm for phase estimation, and discrete logarithms evaluation problems. For anyone interested in learning more about quantum computing.
This exciting new text opens the entire field of modern astrophysics to the reader by using only the basic tools of physics. Designed for the junior- level astrophysics course, each topic is approached in the context of the major unresolved questions in astrophysics. The core chapters have been designed for a course in stellar structure and evolution, while the extended chapters provide additional coverage of the solar system, galactic structure, dynamics, evolution, and cosmology. * Two versions of this text are available: An Introduction to Modern Stellar Astrophysics, (Chapters 1-17), and An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics, (Chapters 1-28). * Computer programs included with the text allow students to explore the physics of stars and galaxies. * In designing a curriculum, instructors can combine core and extended chapters with the optional advanced sections so as to meet their individual goals. * Up-to-date coverage of current astrophysical discoveries are included. * This text emphasizes computational physics, including computer problems and on-line programs. * This text also includes a selection of over 500 problems. For additional information and computer codes to be used
This book provides a gentle introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics. The particular aim is to fill the needs of readers who wish to learn the subject without a solid background in classical and quantum mechanics. The approach is unique in that classical mechanical formulation takes center stage. The book will be of particular interest to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in engineering departments.
Mathematics is the essential language of science. It enables us to describe abstract physical concepts, and to apply these concepts in practical ways. Yet mathematical skills and concepts are an aspect of physics that many students fear the most. Mathematics for Physics recognizes the challenges faced by students in equipping themselves with the maths skills necessary to gain a full understanding of physics. Working from basic yet fundamental principles, the book builds the students' confidence by leading them through the subject in a steady, progressive way. As its primary aim, Mathematics for Physics shows the relevance of mathematics to the study of physics. Its unique approach demonstrates the application of mathematical concepts alongside the development of the mathematical theory. This stimulating and motivating approach helps students to master the maths and see its application in the context of physics in one seamless learning experience. Mathematics is a subject mastered most readily through active learning. Mathematics for Physics features both print and online support, with many in-text exercises and end-of-chapter problems, and web-based computer programs, to both stimulate learning and build understanding. Mathematics for Physics is the perfect introduction to the essential mathematical concepts which all physics students should master. Online Resource Centre: For lecturers: Figures from the book available to download, to facilitate lecture preparation For students: 23 computer programs, coded in FORTRAN, C, and MATLAB, to enable students to investigate and solve a range of problems - from the behaviour of clusters of stars to the design of nuclear reactors - and hence make learning as effective and engaging as possible.