Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding

Author: Arnel R. Hallauer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 664

View: 1000

Maize is used in an endless list of products that are directly or indirectly related to human nutrition and food security. Maize is grown in producer farms, farmers depend on genetically improved cultivars, and maize breeders develop improved maize cultivars for farmers. Nikolai I. Vavilov defined plant breeding as plant evolution directed by man. Among crops, maize is one of the most successful examples for breeder-directed evolution. Maize is a cross-pollinated species with unique and separate male and female organs allowing techniques from both self and cross-pollinated crops to be utilized. As a consequence, a diverse set of breeding methods can be utilized for the development of various maize cultivar types for all economic conditions (e.g., improved populations, inbred lines, and their hybrids for different types of markets). Maize breeding is the science of maize cultivar development. Public investment in maize breeding from 1865 to 1996 was $3 billion (Crosbie et al., 2004) and the return on investment was $260 billion as a consequence of applied maize breeding, even without full understanding of the genetic basis of heterosis. The principles of quantitative genetics have been successfully applied by maize breeders worldwide to adapt and improve germplasm sources of cultivars for very simple traits (e.g. maize flowering) and very complex ones (e.g., grain yield). For instance, genomic efforts have isolated early-maturing genes and QTL for potential MAS but very simple and low cost phenotypic efforts have caused significant and fast genetic progress across genotypes moving elite tropical and late temperate maize northward with minimal investment. Quantitative genetics has allowed the integration of pre-breeding with cultivar development by characterizing populations genetically, adapting them to places never thought of (e.g., tropical to short-seasons), improving them by all sorts of intra- and inter-population recurrent selection methods, extracting lines with more probability of success, and exploiting inbreeding and heterosis. Quantitative genetics in maize breeding has improved the odds of developing outstanding maize cultivars from genetically broad based improved populations such as B73. The inbred-hybrid concept in maize was a public sector invention 100 years ago and it is still considered one of the greatest achievements in plant breeding. Maize hybrids grown by farmers today are still produced following this methodology and there is still no limit to genetic improvement when most genes are targeted in the breeding process. Heterotic effects are unique for each hybrid and exotic genetic materials (e.g., tropical, early maturing) carry useful alleles for complex traits not present in the B73 genome just sequenced while increasing the genetic diversity of U.S. hybrids. Breeding programs based on classical quantitative genetics and selection methods will be the basis for proving theoretical approaches on breeding plans based on molecular markers. Mating designs still offer large sample sizes when compared to QTL approaches and there is still a need to successful integration of these methods. There is a need to increase the genetic diversity of maize hybrids available in the market (e.g., there is a need to increase the number of early maturing testers in the northern U.S.). Public programs can still develop new and genetically diverse products not available in industry. However, public U.S. maize breeding programs have either been discontinued or are eroding because of decreasing state and federal funding toward basic science. Future significant genetic gains in maize are dependent on the incorporation of useful and unique genetic diversity not available in industry (e.g., NDSU EarlyGEM lines). The integration of pre-breeding methods with cultivar development should enhance future breeding efforts to maintain active public breeding programs not only adapting and improving genetically broad-based germplasm but also developing unique products and training the next generation of maize breeders producing research dissertations directly linked to breeding programs. This is especially important in areas where commercial hybrids are not locally bred. More than ever public and private institutions are encouraged to cooperate in order to share breeding rights, research goals, winter nurseries, managed stress environments, and latest technology for the benefit of producing the best possible hybrids for farmers with the least cost. We have the opportunity to link both classical and modern technology for the benefit of breeding in close cooperation with industry without the need for investing in academic labs and time (e.g., industry labs take a week vs months/years in academic labs for the same work). This volume, as part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding series, aims to increase awareness of the relative value and impact of maize breeding for food, feed, and fuel security. Without breeding programs continuously developing improved germplasm, no technology can develop improved cultivars. Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding presents principles and data that can be applied to maximize genetic improvement of germplasm and develop superior genotypes in different crops. The topics included should be of interest of graduate students and breeders conducting research not only on breeding and selection methods but also developing pure lines and hybrid cultivars in crop species. This volume is a unique and permanent contribution to breeders, geneticists, students, policy makers, and land-grant institutions still promoting quality research in applied plant breeding as opposed to promoting grant monies and indirect costs at any short-term cost. The book is dedicated to those who envision the development of the next generation of cultivars with less need of water and inputs, with better nutrition; and with higher percentages of exotic germplasm as well as those that pursue independent research goals before searching for funding. Scientists are encouraged to use all possible breeding methodologies available (e.g., transgenics, classical breeding, MAS, and all possible combinations could be used with specific sound long and short-term goals on mind) once germplasm is chosen making wise decisions with proven and scientifically sound technologies for assisting current breeding efforts depending on the particular trait under selection. Arnel R. Hallauer is C. F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor in Agriculture (Emeritus) at Iowa State University (ISU). Dr. Hallauer has led maize-breeding research for mid-season maturity at ISU since 1958. His work has had a worldwide impact on plant-breeding programs, industry, and students and was named a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Hallauer is a native of Kansas, USA. José B. Miranda Filho is full-professor in the Department of Genetics, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - University of São Paulo located at Piracicaba, Brazil. His research interests have emphasized development of quantitative genetic theory and its application to maize breeding. Miranda Filho is native of Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. M.J. Carena is professor of plant sciences at North Dakota State University (NDSU). Dr. Carena has led maize-breeding research for short-season maturity at NDSU since 1999. This program is currently one the of the few public U.S. programs left integrating pre-breeding with cultivar development and training in applied maize breeding. He teaches Quantitative Genetics and Crop Breeding Techniques at NDSU. Carena is a native of Buenos Aires, Argentina. http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/plantsci/faculty/Carena.htm

Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding

Author: Arnel R. Hallauer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 664

View: 513

Maize is used in an endless list of products that are directly or indirectly related to human nutrition and food security. Maize is grown in producer farms, farmers depend on genetically improved cultivars, and maize breeders develop improved maize cultivars for farmers. Nikolai I. Vavilov defined plant breeding as plant evolution directed by man. Among crops, maize is one of the most successful examples for breeder-directed evolution. Maize is a cross-pollinated species with unique and separate male and female organs allowing techniques from both self and cross-pollinated crops to be utilized. As a consequence, a diverse set of breeding methods can be utilized for the development of various maize cultivar types for all economic conditions (e.g., improved populations, inbred lines, and their hybrids for different types of markets). Maize breeding is the science of maize cultivar development. Public investment in maize breeding from 1865 to 1996 was $3 billion (Crosbie et al., 2004) and the return on investment was $260 billion as a consequence of applied maize breeding, even without full understanding of the genetic basis of heterosis. The principles of quantitative genetics have been successfully applied by maize breeders worldwide to adapt and improve germplasm sources of cultivars for very simple traits (e.g. maize flowering) and very complex ones (e.g., grain yield). For instance, genomic efforts have isolated early-maturing genes and QTL for potential MAS but very simple and low cost phenotypic efforts have caused significant and fast genetic progress across genotypes moving elite tropical and late temperate maize northward with minimal investment. Quantitative genetics has allowed the integration of pre-breeding with cultivar development by characterizing populations genetically, adapting them to places never thought of (e.g., tropical to short-seasons), improving them by all sorts of intra- and inter-population recurrent selection methods, extracting lines with more probability of success, and exploiting inbreeding and heterosis. Quantitative genetics in maize breeding has improved the odds of developing outstanding maize cultivars from genetically broad based improved populations such as B73. The inbred-hybrid concept in maize was a public sector invention 100 years ago and it is still considered one of the greatest achievements in plant breeding. Maize hybrids grown by farmers today are still produced following this methodology and there is still no limit to genetic improvement when most genes are targeted in the breeding process. Heterotic effects are unique for each hybrid and exotic genetic materials (e.g., tropical, early maturing) carry useful alleles for complex traits not present in the B73 genome just sequenced while increasing the genetic diversity of U.S. hybrids. Breeding programs based on classical quantitative genetics and selection methods will be the basis for proving theoretical approaches on breeding plans based on molecular markers. Mating designs still offer large sample sizes when compared to QTL approaches and there is still a need to successful integration of these methods. There is a need to increase the genetic diversity of maize hybrids available in the market (e.g., there is a need to increase the number of early maturing testers in the northern U.S.). Public programs can still develop new and genetically diverse products not available in industry. However, public U.S. maize breeding programs have either been discontinued or are eroding because of decreasing state and federal funding toward basic science. Future significant genetic gains in maize are dependent on the incorporation of useful and unique genetic diversity not available in industry (e.g., NDSU EarlyGEM lines). The integration of pre-breeding methods with cultivar development should enhance future breeding efforts to maintain active public breeding programs not only adapting and improving genetically broad-based germplasm but also developing unique products and training the next generation of maize breeders producing research dissertations directly linked to breeding programs. This is especially important in areas where commercial hybrids are not locally bred. More than ever public and private institutions are encouraged to cooperate in order to share breeding rights, research goals, winter nurseries, managed stress environments, and latest technology for the benefit of producing the best possible hybrids for farmers with the least cost. We have the opportunity to link both classical and modern technology for the benefit of breeding in close cooperation with industry without the need for investing in academic labs and time (e.g., industry labs take a week vs months/years in academic labs for the same work). This volume, as part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding series, aims to increase awareness of the relative value and impact of maize breeding for food, feed, and fuel security. Without breeding programs continuously developing improved germplasm, no technology can develop improved cultivars. Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding presents principles and data that can be applied to maximize genetic improvement of germplasm and develop superior genotypes in different crops. The topics included should be of interest of graduate students and breeders conducting research not only on breeding and selection methods but also developing pure lines and hybrid cultivars in crop species. This volume is a unique and permanent contribution to breeders, geneticists, students, policy makers, and land-grant institutions still promoting quality research in applied plant breeding as opposed to promoting grant monies and indirect costs at any short-term cost. The book is dedicated to those who envision the development of the next generation of cultivars with less need of water and inputs, with better nutrition; and with higher percentages of exotic germplasm as well as those that pursue independent research goals before searching for funding. Scientists are encouraged to use all possible breeding methodologies available (e.g., transgenics, classical breeding, MAS, and all possible combinations could be used with specific sound long and short-term goals on mind) once germplasm is chosen making wise decisions with proven and scientifically sound technologies for assisting current breeding efforts depending on the particular trait under selection. Arnel R. Hallauer is C. F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor in Agriculture (Emeritus) at Iowa State University (ISU). Dr. Hallauer has led maize-breeding research for mid-season maturity at ISU since 1958. His work has had a worldwide impact on plant-breeding programs, industry, and students and was named a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Hallauer is a native of Kansas, USA. José B. Miranda Filho is full-professor in the Department of Genetics, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - University of São Paulo located at Piracicaba, Brazil. His research interests have emphasized development of quantitative genetic theory and its application to maize breeding. Miranda Filho is native of Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. M.J. Carena is professor of plant sciences at North Dakota State University (NDSU). Dr. Carena has led maize-breeding research for short-season maturity at NDSU since 1999. This program is currently one the of the few public U.S. programs left integrating pre-breeding with cultivar development and training in applied maize breeding. He teaches Quantitative Genetics and Crop Breeding Techniques at NDSU. Carena is a native of Buenos Aires, Argentina. http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/plantsci/faculty/Carena.htm

Quantitative Genetics, Genomics and Plant Breeding, 2nd Edition

Author: Manjit S. Kang

Publisher: CABI

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 431

View: 554

This book presents state-of-the-art, authoritative chapters on contemporary issues in the broad areas of quantitative genetics, genomics and plant breeding. Section 1 (Chapters 2 to 12) emphasizes the application of genomics, and genome and epigenome editing techniques, in plant breeding; bioinformatics; quantitative trait loci mapping; and the latest approaches of examining and exploiting genotype-environment interactions. Section 2 (Chapters 13 to 20) represents the intersection of breeding, genetics and genomics. This section describes the use of cutting-edge molecular breeding and quantitative genetics techniques in wheat, rice, maize, root and tuber crops and pearl millet. Overall, the book focuses on using genomic information to help evaluate traits that can combat biotic/abiotic stresses, genome-wide association mapping, high-throughput genotyping/phenotyping, biofortification, use of big data, orphan crops, and gene editing techniques. The examples featured are taken from across crop science research and cover a wide geographical base.

Quantitative Genetics and Selection in Plant Breeding

Author: Gunter Wricke

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Crops

Page: 406

View: 465

Basic population genetics. Quantitative genetics. Covariances between relatives. Estimation of genetic variances and covariances from experiments. Basic concepts of selection. Selection between clones and homozygous lines. Selection in cross-fertilizing crops - population improvement. Synthetic varieties. Hybrid varieties. Selection in segregation generations of sel-fertilizing crops. Selection in autotetraploids. Selection for several characters. Selection progrees and selection limits.

Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Maize

Author: Ramakrishna Wusirika

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 310

View: 955

Sequencing of the maize genome has opened up new opportunities in maize breeding, genetics and genomics research. This book highlights modern trends in development of hybrids, analysis of genetic diversity, molecular breeding, comparative and functional genomics, epigenomicsand proteomics in maize. The use of maize in biofuels, phytoremediation and pharmaceuticals is also highlighted. Current research trends, future research directions and challenges are discussed by a panel of experts from all over the world.

Quantitative Genetics and Breeding Methods

The Way Ahead : Proceedings of the Eleventh Meeting of the EUCARPIA Section Biometrics in Plant Breeding, Paris, France, August 30/31-September 1, 2000

Author: Eucarpia. Biometrics in Plant Breeding. Meeting

Publisher: Editions Quae

ISBN:

Category: Biometry

Page: 331

View: 289

Cereals

Author: Marcelo J. Carena

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 426

View: 700

Agriculture depends on improved cultivars, and cultivars are developed through proper plant breeding. Unfortunately, applied plant breeding programs that are focused on cereal commodity crops are under serious erosion because of lack of funding. This loss of public support affects breeding continuity, objectivity, and, perhaps equally important, the training of future plant breeders and the utilization and improvement of plant genetic resources currently available. Breeding programs should focus not only on short-term research goals but also on long-term genetic improvement of germplasm. The research products of breeding programs are important not only for food security but also for commodity-oriented public and private programs, especially in the fringes of crop production. Breeding strategies used for long-term selection are often neglected but the reality is that long-term research is needed for the success of short-term products. An excellent example is that genetically broad-based public germplasm has significantly been utilized and recycled by industry, producing billions of dollars for industry and farmers before intellectual property rights were available. Successful examples of breeding continuity have served the sustainable cereal crop production that we currently have. The fact that farmers rely on public and private breeding institutions for solving long-term challenges should influence policy makers to reverse this trend of reduced funding. Joint cooperation between industry and public institutions would be a good example to follow. The objective of this volume is to increase the utilization of useful genetic resources and increase awareness of the relative value and impact of plant breeding and biotechnology. That should lead to a more sustainable crop production and ultimately food security. Applied plant breeding will continue to be the foundation to which molecular markers are applied. Focusing useful molecular techniques on the right traits will build a strong linkage between genomics and plant breeding and lead to new and better cultivars. Therefore, more than ever there is a need for better communication and cooperation among scientists in the plant breeding and biotechnology areas. We have an opportunity to greatly enhance agricultural production by applying the results of this research to meet the growing demands for food security and environmental conservation. Ensuring strong applied plant breeding programs with successful application of molecular markers will be essential in ensuring such sustainable use of plant genetic resources.

Cereals

Author: Marcelo J. Carena

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 426

View: 807

Agriculture depends on improved cultivars, and cultivars are developed through proper plant breeding. Unfortunately, applied plant breeding programs that are focused on cereal commodity crops are under serious erosion because of lack of funding. This loss of public support affects breeding continuity, objectivity, and, perhaps equally important, the training of future plant breeders and the utilization and improvement of plant genetic resources currently available. Breeding programs should focus not only on short-term research goals but also on long-term genetic improvement of germplasm. The research products of breeding programs are important not only for food security but also for commodity-oriented public and private programs, especially in the fringes of crop production. Breeding strategies used for long-term selection are often neglected but the reality is that long-term research is needed for the success of short-term products. An excellent example is that genetically broad-based public germplasm has significantly been utilized and recycled by industry, producing billions of dollars for industry and farmers before intellectual property rights were available. Successful examples of breeding continuity have served the sustainable cereal crop production that we currently have. The fact that farmers rely on public and private breeding institutions for solving long-term challenges should influence policy makers to reverse this trend of reduced funding. Joint cooperation between industry and public institutions would be a good example to follow. The objective of this volume is to increase the utilization of useful genetic resources and increase awareness of the relative value and impact of plant breeding and biotechnology. That should lead to a more sustainable crop production and ultimately food security. Applied plant breeding will continue to be the foundation to which molecular markers are applied. Focusing useful molecular techniques on the right traits will build a strong linkage between genomics and plant breeding and lead to new and better cultivars. Therefore, more than ever there is a need for better communication and cooperation among scientists in the plant breeding and biotechnology areas. We have an opportunity to greatly enhance agricultural production by applying the results of this research to meet the growing demands for food security and environmental conservation. Ensuring strong applied plant breeding programs with successful application of molecular markers will be essential in ensuring such sustainable use of plant genetic resources.

Maize Genetics and Breeding in the 20th Century

Author: Peter A Peterson

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 171

This book provides the biographies, and a related summary, of geneticists and breeders of maize who have contributed to the major discoveries in the 20th century. Their relationships to one another, as well as the general developments in maize genetics and breeding growth, are included. Photographs of events and related personnel, all part of the biographic presentation, portray the maize community and its growth. Most of the geneticists and breeders have a common origin in their training, and their sucessors are among the current contributors to maize development. Contents:Development of Maize Genetics and Breeding:Flowering of Maize GeneticsRelevant Genetic Milestones in the Late 19th and Early 20th CenturiesThe Maize PlantEmergence of CornThe Bussey Institute and Its Role in the Development of Plant ScienceThe Legendary School of Maize Genetics Under EmersonThe Early Maize Cytogenetics GroupThe Maize Breeding GroupThe Maize Evolution GroupA Later Genetics-Cytogenetics GroupStock Center, Genetics, and PathologyThe Italian Maize Genetics ScientistsThe Development of an Understanding of the Anthocyanin PathwayThe Origin of the Allerton Maize Genetics MeetingsThe Maize CommunityThe Maize Pedigree TreeLegacy of the PastScience ProgressThe Commemorative Issues of MAYDICA:William A RussellCharles R BurnhamR Alexander BrinkWilliam L BrownMarcus M RhoadesGeorge F SpraguePaul C MangelsdorfBarbara McClintockCharles O GardnerJohn R LaughanHugh H IltisOliver E Nelson, Jr.Drew SchwartzPeter A PetersonArnel R HallauerEarl B PattersonArthur Lee HookerMyron G NeufferErcole OttavianoDonald Sage RobertsonEdward H Coe, Jr., Marcus S ZuberDavid B WaldenJames D SmithRecent Developments in the Genetics and Molecular Biology of Maize Mutants:Gene CloningVisiting the GenomeGenome Dissection and FingerprintingBiotechnologyMaize Development Readership: Maize researchers, geneticists, molecular biologists and scientific historians. keywords:Corn Breeding;Maize Geneticists;McClintock;Transposons;Mobile Elements;DNA;Maize Milestones;R AEmerson;Maize community;Transposition

The Quantitative Genetics of a Non-stiff-stalk Maize (Zea Mays L.) Population

Author: Brandon M. Wardyn

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 228

View: 382

The genetic relationship among individuals is at the core of nearly all quantitative genetic theory. Dominant gene action has long been either ignored or disregarded as insignificant in many previous genetic models. For grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.), dominance has consistently accounted for a large proportion of genetic variance. We have used previously developed genetic theory that accounts for dominance variance during inbreeding and applied it to a unique breeding design. Our breeding design allowed us to estimate five genetic covariance parameters for six traits. In addition, we developed genetic gain equations that accounted for both dominance and inbreeding. We found that the genetic covariance parameters introduced via inbreeding were significant for five traits. Our estimates of the genetic covariance parameters allowed us to predict genetic gain over a range of selection units and response units. Half-sib selection proved superior to inbred progeny selection when the response was measured in the outbred progeny. In addition, the relative proportions of additive and dominance variance influenced the effectiveness of inbred progeny selection. We also showed that even when dominance constitutes a larger proportion of the total genetic variance than additive variance, the loss of additive effects has a greater influence on the decline associated with inbreeding than the addition of homozygous dominance deviations. Our results also indicated that the reason realized gain often falls short of predicted gain is due to the negative covariance between additive effects and homozygous dominance effects. The effect of a negative covariance is that positive gain via additive effects is offset by negative gain via homozygous dominance deviations.

Quantitative Genetics and Breeding Methods

Proceedings of the Fourth Meeting of the Section, Biometrics in Plant Breeding, Pointiers, France, September 2-4, 1981

Author: A. Gallais

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Biometry

Page: 319

View: 733

Handbook of Maize

Genetics and Genomics

Author: Jeff L. Bennetzen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 800

View: 106

Maize is one of the world’s highest value crops, with a multibillion dollar annual contribution to agriculture. The great adaptability and high yields available for maize as a food, feed and forage crop have led to its current production on over 140 million hectares worldwide, with acreage continuing to grow at the expense of other crops. In terms of tons of cereal grain produced worldwide, maize has been number one for many years. Moreover, maize is expanding its contribution to non-food uses, including as a major source of ethanol as a fuel additive or fuel alternative in the US. In addition, maize has been at the center of the transgenic plant controversy, serving as the first food crop with released transgenic varieties. By 2008, maize will have its genome sequence released, providing the sequence of the first average-size plant genome (the four plant genomes that are now sequenced come from unusually tiny genomes) and of the most complex genome sequenced from any organism. Among plant science researchers, maize has the second largest and most productive research community, trailing only the Arabidopsis community in scale and significance. At the applied research and commercial improvement levels, maize has no peers in agriculture, and consists of thousands of contributors worthwhile. A comprehensive book on the biology of maize has not been published. The "Handbook of Maize: the Genetics and Genomics" center on the past, present and future of maize as a model for plant science research and crop improvement. The books include brief, focused chapters from the foremost maize experts and feature a succinct collection of informative images representing the maize germplasm collection.

Maydica

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Corn

Page:

View: 914

Journal devoted to maize and allied species.